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  1. $interpolateProvider
  2. service in module ng

Compiles a string with markup into an interpolation function. This service is used by the HTML $compile service for data binding. See $interpolateProvider for configuring the interpolation markup.

var $interpolate = ...; // injected
var exp = $interpolate('Hello {{name | uppercase}}!');
expect(exp({name:'Angular'})).toEqual('Hello ANGULAR!');

$interpolate takes an optional fourth argument, allOrNothing. If allOrNothing is true, the interpolation function will return undefined unless all embedded expressions evaluate to a value other than undefined.

var $interpolate = ...; // injected
var context = {greeting: 'Hello', name: undefined };

// default "forgiving" mode
var exp = $interpolate('{{greeting}} {{name}}!');
expect(exp(context)).toEqual('Hello !');

// "allOrNothing" mode
exp = $interpolate('{{greeting}} {{name}}!', false, null, true);
context.name = 'Angular';
expect(exp(context)).toEqual('Hello Angular!');

allOrNothing is useful for interpolating URLs. ngSrc and ngSrcset use this behavior.

Escaped Interpolation

$interpolate provides a mechanism for escaping interpolation markers. Start and end markers can be escaped by preceding each of their characters with a REVERSE SOLIDUS U+005C (backslash). It will be rendered as a regular start/end marker, and will not be interpreted as an expression or binding.

This enables web-servers to prevent script injection attacks and defacing attacks, to some degree, while also enabling code examples to work without relying on the ngNonBindable directive.

For security purposes, it is strongly encouraged that web servers escape user-supplied data, replacing angle brackets (<, >) with &lt; and &gt; respectively, and replacing all interpolation start/end markers with their escaped counterparts.

Escaped interpolation markers are only replaced with the actual interpolation markers in rendered output when the $interpolate service processes the text. So, for HTML elements interpolated by $compile, or otherwise interpolated with the mustHaveExpression parameter set to true, the interpolated text must contain an unescaped interpolation expression. As such, this is typically useful only when user-data is used in rendering a template from the server, or when otherwise untrusted data is used by a directive.

Known Issues

It is currently not possible for an interpolated expression to contain the interpolation end symbol. For example, {{ '}}' }} will be incorrectly interpreted as {{ ' }} + ' }}, i.e. an interpolated expression consisting of a single-quote (') and the ' }} string.

All directives and components must use the standard {{ }} interpolation symbols in their templates. If you change the application interpolation symbols the $compile service will attempt to denormalize the standard symbols to the custom symbols. The denormalization process is not clever enough to know not to replace instances of the standard symbols where they would not normally be treated as interpolation symbols. For example in the following code snippet the closing braces of the literal object will get incorrectly denormalized:

<div data-context='{"context":{"id":3,"type":"page"}}">

The workaround is to ensure that such instances are separated by whitespace:

<div data-context='{"context":{"id":3,"type":"page"} }">

See https://github.com/angular/angular.js/pull/14610#issuecomment-219401099 for more information.



$interpolate(text, [mustHaveExpression], [trustedContext], [allOrNothing]);


Param Type Details
text string

The text with markup to interpolate.


if set to true then the interpolation string must have embedded expression in order to return an interpolation function. Strings with no embedded expression will return null for the interpolation function.


when provided, the returned function passes the interpolated result through $sce.getTrusted(interpolatedResult, trustedContext) before returning it. Refer to the $sce service that provides Strict Contextual Escaping for details.


if true, then the returned function returns undefined unless all embedded expressions evaluate to a value other than undefined.



an interpolation function which is used to compute the interpolated string. The function has these parameters:

  • context: evaluation context for all expressions embedded in the interpolated text


  • startSymbol();

    Symbol to denote the start of expression in the interpolated string. Defaults to {{.

    Use $interpolateProvider.startSymbol to change the symbol.



    start symbol.

  • endSymbol();

    Symbol to denote the end of expression in the interpolated string. Defaults to }}.

    Use $interpolateProvider.endSymbol to change the symbol.



    end symbol.

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