htpasswd is used to create and update the flat-files used to store usernames and password for basic authentication of HTTP users. If
htpasswd cannot access a file, such as not being able to write to the output file or not being able to read the file in order to update it, it returns an error status and makes no changes.
Resources available from the Apache HTTP server can be restricted to just the users listed in the files created by
htpasswd. This program can only manage usernames and passwords stored in a flat-file. It can encrypt and display password information for use in other types of data stores, though. To use a DBM database see
htpasswd encrypts passwords using either bcrypt, a version of MD5 modified for Apache, SHA1, or the system's
crypt() routine. Files managed by
htpasswd may contain a mixture of different encoding types of passwords; some user records may have bcrypt or MD5-encrypted passwords while others in the same file may have passwords encrypted with
This manual page only lists the command line arguments. For details of the directives necessary to configure user authentication in
httpd see the Apache manual, which is part of the Apache distribution or can be found at http://httpd.apache.org/.
htpasswd [ -c ] [ -i ] [ -m | -B | -d | -s | -p ] [ -C cost ] [ -D ] [ -v ] passwdfile username
htpasswd -b [ -c ] [ -m | -B | -d | -s | -p ] [ -C cost ] [ -D ] [ -v ] passwdfile username password
htpasswd -n [ -i ] [ -m | -B | -d | -s | -p ] [ -C cost ] username
htpasswd -nb [ -m | -B | -d | -s | -p ] [ -C cost ] username password
-ioption. Available in 2.4.4 and later.
-B(bcrypt encryption). It sets the computing time used for the bcrypt algorithm (higher is more secure but slower, default: 5, valid: 4 to 31).
crypt()encryption for passwords. This is not supported by the
httpdserver on Windows and Netware. This algorithm limits the password length to 8 characters. This algorithm is insecure by today's standards. It used to be the default algorithm until version 2.2.17.
htpasswdwill support creation on all platforms, the
httpddaemon will only accept plain text passwords on Windows and Netware.
-cis given, this file is created if it does not already exist, or rewritten and truncated if it does exist.
htpasswd returns a zero status ("true") if the username and password have been successfully added or updated in the passwdfile.
1 if it encounters some problem accessing files,
2 if there was a syntax problem with the command line,
3 if the password was entered interactively and the verification entry didn't match,
4 if its operation was interrupted,
5 if a value is too long (username, filename, password, or final computed record),
6 if the username contains illegal characters (see the Restrictions section), and
7 if the file is not a valid password file.
htpasswd /usr/local/etc/apache/.htpasswd-users jsmith
Adds or modifies the password for user
jsmith. The user is prompted for the password. The password will be encrypted using the modified Apache MD5 algorithm. If the file does not exist,
htpasswd will do nothing except return an error.
htpasswd -c /home/doe/public_html/.htpasswd jane
Creates a new file and stores a record in it for user
jane. The user is prompted for the password. If the file exists and cannot be read, or cannot be written, it is not altered and
htpasswd will display a message and return an error status.
htpasswd -db /usr/web/.htpasswd-all jones Pwd4Steve
Encrypts the password from the command line (
Pwd4Steve) using the
crypt() algorithm, and stores it in the specified file.
Web password files such as those managed by
htpasswd should not be within the Web server's URI space -- that is, they should not be fetchable with a browser.
This program is not safe as a setuid executable. Do not make it setuid.
The use of the
-b option is discouraged, since when it is used the unencrypted password appears on the command line.
When using the
crypt() algorithm, note that only the first 8 characters of the password are used to form the password. If the supplied password is longer, the extra characters will be silently discarded.
The SHA encryption format does not use salting: for a given password, there is only one encrypted representation. The
crypt() and MD5 formats permute the representation by prepending a random salt string, to make dictionary attacks against the passwords more difficult.
The SHA and
crypt() formats are insecure by today's standards.
On the Windows platform, passwords encrypted with
htpasswd are limited to no more than
255 characters in length. Longer passwords will be truncated to 255 characters.
The MD5 algorithm used by
htpasswd is specific to the Apache software; passwords encrypted using it will not be usable with other Web servers.
Usernames are limited to
255 bytes and may not include the character
© 2016 The Apache Software Foundation
Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0.