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Range

A Range is typically constructed with a range literal:

x..y  # an inclusive range, in mathematics: [x, y]
x...y # an exclusive range, in mathematics: [x, y)

An easy way to remember which one is inclusive and which one is exclusive it to think of the extra dot as if it pushes y further away, thus leaving it outside of the range.

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https://crystal-lang.org/docs/syntax_and_semantics/literals/range.html