The <transform-function>
CSS data type represents a transformation that affects an element's appearance. Transformation functions can rotate, resize, distort, or move an element in 2D or 3D space. It is used in the transform
property.
Various coordinate models can be used to describe an HTML element's size and shape, as well as any transformations applied to it. The most common is the Cartesian coordinate system, although homogeneous coordinates are also sometimes used.
In the Cartesian coordinate system, a two-dimensional point is described using two values: an x coordinate (abscissa) and a y coordinate (ordinate). This is represented by the vector notation (x, y)
.
In CSS (and most computer graphics), the origin (0, 0)
represents the top-left corner of any element. Positive coordinates are down and to the right of the origin, while negative ones are up and to the left. Thus, a point that's 2 units to the right and 5 units down would be (2, 5)
, while a point 3 units to the left and 12 units up would be (-3, -12)
.
Transformation functions alter the appearance of an element by manipulating the values of its coordinates. A linear transformation function is described using a 2x2 matrix, like this:
$\left(\begin{array}{cc}a& c\\ b& d\end{array}\right)$
The function is applied to an element by using matrix multiplication. Thus, each coordinate changes based on the values in the matrix:
It is even possible to apply several transformations in a row:
With this notation, it is possible to describe, and therefore compose, most common transformations: rotations, scaling, or skewing. (In fact, all transformations that are linear functions can be described.) Composite transformations are effectively applied in order from right to left.
However, one major transformation is not linear, and therefore must be special-cased when using this notation: translation. The translation vector (tx, ty)
must be expressed separately, as two additional parameters.
Note: Though trickier than Cartesian coordinates, homogeneous coordinates in projective geometry lead to 3x3 transformation matrices, and can simply express translations as linear functions.
The <transform-function>
data type is specified using one of the transformation functions listed below. Each function applies a geometric operation in either 2D or 3D.
matrix()
matrix3d()
perspective()
rotate()
rotate3d()
rotatex()
rotatey()
rotatez()
scale()
scale3d()
scalex()
scaley()
scalez()
skew()
skewx()
skewy()
translate()
translate3d()
translatex()
translatey()
translatez()
Specification | Status | Comment |
---|---|---|
CSS Transforms Level 1 The definition of 'transform' in that specification. | Working Draft | Initial definition. |
Feature | Chrome | Edge | Firefox | Internet Explorer | Opera | Safari |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Basic support | Yes | ? | 3.5^{1} ^{2} | 9^{3} | 10.5 | 3.1 |
3D support | 12 | ? | 10 | 10 | 15 | 4 |
Feature | Android webview | Chrome for Android | Edge mobile | Firefox for Android | IE mobile | Opera Android | iOS Safari |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Basic support | 2.1 | Yes | ? | Yes | Yes | 11.5 | 3.2 |
3D support | 3 | Yes | ? | Yes | Yes | 22 | 3.2 |
1. Firefox 14 removed experimental support for skew()
, but it was reintroduced in Firefox 15.
2. Before Firefox 16, the translation values of matrix()
and matrix3d()
could be <length>
s, in addition to the standard <number>
.
3. Internet Explorer 9 supports 2D but not 3D transforms. In version 9, mixing 2D and 3D transform functions invalidates the entire property.
transform
property
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Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License v2.5 or later.
https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/CSS/transform-function