This document provides API reference material for the components of Django’s authentication system. For more details on the usage of these components or how to customize authentication and authorization see the authentication topic guide.
User objects have the following fields:
Required. 150 characters or fewer. Usernames may contain alphanumeric,
max_length should be sufficient for many use cases. If you need a longer length, please use a custom user model. If you use MySQL with the
utf8mb4 encoding (recommended for proper Unicode support), specify at most
max_length=191 because MySQL can only create unique indexes with 191 characters in that case by default.
Usernames and Unicode
Django originally accepted only ASCII letters and numbers in usernames. Although it wasn’t a deliberate choice, Unicode characters have always been accepted when using Python 3. Django 1.10 officially added Unicode support in usernames, keeping the ASCII-only behavior on Python 2, with the option to customize the behavior using
blank=True). 30 characters or fewer.
blank=True). 150 characters or fewer.
max_length increased from 30 to 150 characters.
blank=True). Email address.
Required. A hash of, and metadata about, the password. (Django doesn’t store the raw password.) Raw passwords can be arbitrarily long and can contain any character. See the password documentation.
Many-to-many relationship to
Many-to-many relationship to
Boolean. Designates whether this user can access the admin site.
Boolean. Designates whether this user account should be considered active. We recommend that you set this flag to
False instead of deleting accounts; that way, if your applications have any foreign keys to users, the foreign keys won’t break.
This doesn’t necessarily control whether or not the user can log in. Authentication backends aren’t required to check for the
is_active flag but the default backend (
ModelBackend) and the
RemoteUserBackend do. You can use
AllowAllUsersRemoteUserBackend if you want to allow inactive users to login. In this case, you’ll also want to customize the
AuthenticationForm used by the
LoginView as it rejects inactive users. Be aware that the permission-checking methods such as
has_perm() and the authentication in the Django admin all return
False for inactive users.
Boolean. Designates that this user has all permissions without explicitly assigning them.
A datetime of the user’s last login.
A datetime designating when the account was created. Is set to the current date/time by default when the account is created.
Read-only attribute which is always
True (as opposed to
AnonymousUser.is_authenticated which is always
False). This is a way to tell if the user has been authenticated. This does not imply any permissions and doesn’t check if the user is active or has a valid session. Even though normally you will check this attribute on
request.user to find out whether it has been populated by the
AuthenticationMiddleware (representing the currently logged-in user), you should know this attribute is
True for any
Points to a validator instance used to validate usernames. Defaults to
To change the default username validator, you can subclass the
User model and set this attribute to a different validator instance. For example, to use ASCII usernames:
from django.contrib.auth.models import User from django.contrib.auth.validators import ASCIIUsernameValidator class CustomUser(User): username_validator = ASCIIUsernameValidator() class Meta: proxy = True # If no new field is added.
Returns the username for the user. Since the
User model can be swapped out, you should use this method instead of referencing the username attribute directly.
Sets the user’s password to the given raw string, taking care of the password hashing. Doesn’t save the
None, the password will be set to an unusable password, as if
set_unusable_password() were used.
True if the given raw string is the correct password for the user. (This takes care of the password hashing in making the comparison.)
You may need this if authentication for your application takes place against an existing external source such as an LDAP directory.
set_unusable_password() has been called for this user.
Returns a set of permission strings that the user has, through their groups.
obj is passed in, only returns the group permissions for this specific object.
Returns a set of permission strings that the user has, both through group and user permissions.
obj is passed in, only returns the permissions for this specific object.
True if the user has the specified permission, where perm is in the format
"<app label>.<permission codename>". (see documentation on permissions). If the user is inactive, this method will always return
obj is passed in, this method won’t check for a permission for the model, but for this specific object.
True if the user has each of the specified permissions, where each perm is in the format
"<app label>.<permission codename>". If the user is inactive, this method will always return
obj is passed in, this method won’t check for permissions for the model, but for the specific object.
True if the user has any permissions in the given package (the Django app label). If the user is inactive, this method will always return
create_user(username, email=None, password=None, **extra_fields)
Creates, saves and returns a
If no password is provided,
set_unusable_password() will be called.
See Creating users for example usage.
usernameis always the empty string.
get_username()always returns the empty string.
user_permissionsare always empty.
In practice, you probably won’t need to use
AnonymousUser objects on your own, but they’re used by Web requests, as explained in the next section.
Permission objects have the following fields:
Required. 255 characters or fewer. Example:
Required. A reference to the
django_content_type database table, which contains a record for each installed model.
Required. 100 characters or fewer. Example:
Group objects have the following fields:
Required. 80 characters or fewer. Any characters are permitted. Example:
Many-to-many field to
group.permissions.set([permission_list]) group.permissions.add(permission, permission, ...) group.permissions.remove(permission, permission, ...) group.permissions.clear()
A field validator allowing only ASCII letters and numbers, in addition to
A field validator allowing Unicode characters, in addition to
_. The default validator for
The auth framework uses the following signals that can be used for notification when a user logs in or out.
Sent when a user logs in successfully.
Arguments sent with this signal:
Sent when the logout method is called.
Noneif the user was not authenticated.
Noneif the user was not authenticated.
Sent when the user failed to login successfully
authenticate()or your own custom authentication backend. Credentials matching a set of ‘sensitive’ patterns, (including password) will not be sent in the clear as part of the signal.
HttpRequestobject, if one was provided to
request argument was added.
This section details the authentication backends that come with Django. For information on how to use them and how to write your own authentication backends, see the Other authentication sources section of the User authentication guide.
The following backends are available in
This is the default authentication backend used by Django. It authenticates using credentials consisting of a user identifier and password. For Django’s default user model, the user identifier is the username, for custom user models it is the field specified by USERNAME_FIELD (see Customizing Users and authentication).
get_group_permissions() allow an object to be passed as a parameter for object-specific permissions, but this backend does not implement them other than returning an empty set of permissions if
obj is not None.
authenticate(request, username=None, password=None, **kwargs)
Tries to authenticate
password by calling
User.check_password. If no
username is provided, it tries to fetch a username from
kwargs using the key
CustomUser.USERNAME_FIELD. Returns an authenticated user or
request argument was added.
has_perm(user_obj, perm, obj=None)
Returns whether the
user_obj has any permissions on the app
Use this backend to take advantage of external-to-Django-handled authentication. It authenticates using usernames passed in
request.META['REMOTE_USER']. See the Authenticating against REMOTE_USER documentation.
If you need more control, you can create your own authentication backend that inherits from this class and override these attributes or methods:
False. Determines whether or not a user object is created if not already in the database Defaults to
The username passed as
remote_user is considered trusted. This method simply returns the user object with the given username, creating a new user object if
False and a
User object with the given username is not found in the database.
Performs any cleaning on the
username (e.g. stripping LDAP DN information) prior to using it to get or create a user object. Returns the cleaned username.
Configures a newly created user. This method is called immediately after a new user is created, and can be used to perform custom setup actions, such as setting the user’s groups based on attributes in an LDAP directory. Returns the user object.
Returns the user model instance associated with the given
It checks if the authentication backend stored in the session is present in
AUTHENTICATION_BACKENDS. If so, it uses the backend’s
get_user() method to retrieve the user model instance and then verifies the session by calling the user model’s
Returns an instance of
AnonymousUser if the authentication backend stored in the session is no longer in
AUTHENTICATION_BACKENDS, if a user isn’t returned by the backend’s
get_user() method, or if the session auth hash doesn’t validate.
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