Copyright | (c) The University of Glasgow 2002 |
---|---|

License | see libraries/base/LICENSE |

Maintainer | cvs-ghc@haskell.org |

Stability | internal |

Portability | non-portable (GHC Extensions) |

Safe Haskell | Unsafe |

Language | Haskell2010 |

GHC Extensions: this is the Approved Way to get at GHC-specific extensions.

Note: no other base module should import this module.

A fixed-precision integer type with at least the range `[-2^29 .. 2^29-1]`

. The exact range for a given implementation can be determined by using `minBound`

and `maxBound`

from the `Bounded`

class.

A `Word`

is an unsigned integral type, with the same size as `Int`

.

Single-precision floating point numbers. It is desirable that this type be at least equal in range and precision to the IEEE single-precision type.

Double-precision floating point numbers. It is desirable that this type be at least equal in range and precision to the IEEE double-precision type.

The character type `Char`

is an enumeration whose values represent Unicode (or equivalently ISO/IEC 10646) characters (see http://www.unicode.org/ for details). This set extends the ISO 8859-1 (Latin-1) character set (the first 256 characters), which is itself an extension of the ASCII character set (the first 128 characters). A character literal in Haskell has type `Char`

.

To convert a `Char`

to or from the corresponding `Int`

value defined by Unicode, use `toEnum`

and `fromEnum`

from the `Enum`

class respectively (or equivalently `ord`

and `chr`

).

A value of type `Ptr a`

represents a pointer to an object, or an array of objects, which may be marshalled to or from Haskell values of type `a`

.

The type `a`

will often be an instance of class `Storable`

which provides the marshalling operations. However this is not essential, and you can provide your own operations to access the pointer. For example you might write small foreign functions to get or set the fields of a C `struct`

.

A value of type `FunPtr a`

is a pointer to a function callable from foreign code. The type `a`

will normally be a *foreign type*, a function type with zero or more arguments where

- the argument types are
*marshallable foreign types*, i.e.`Char`

,`Int`

,`Double`

,`Float`

,`Bool`

,`Int8`

,`Int16`

,`Int32`

,`Int64`

,`Word8`

,`Word16`

,`Word32`

,`Word64`

,`Ptr a`

,`FunPtr a`

,`StablePtr a`

or a renaming of any of these using`newtype`

. - the return type is either a marshallable foreign type or has the form
`IO t`

where`t`

is a marshallable foreign type or`()`

.

A value of type `FunPtr a`

may be a pointer to a foreign function, either returned by another foreign function or imported with a a static address import like

foreign import ccall "stdlib.h &free" p_free :: FunPtr (Ptr a -> IO ())

or a pointer to a Haskell function created using a *wrapper* stub declared to produce a `FunPtr`

of the correct type. For example:

type Compare = Int -> Int -> Bool foreign import ccall "wrapper" mkCompare :: Compare -> IO (FunPtr Compare)

Calls to wrapper stubs like `mkCompare`

allocate storage, which should be released with `freeHaskellFunPtr`

when no longer required.

To convert `FunPtr`

values to corresponding Haskell functions, one can define a *dynamic* stub for the specific foreign type, e.g.

type IntFunction = CInt -> IO () foreign import ccall "dynamic" mkFun :: FunPtr IntFunction -> IntFunction

module GHC.Prim

shiftL# :: Word# -> Int# -> Word# Source

Shift the argument left by the specified number of bits (which must be non-negative).

shiftRL# :: Word# -> Int# -> Word# Source

Shift the argument right by the specified number of bits (which must be non-negative). The RL means "right, logical" (as opposed to RA for arithmetic) (although an arithmetic right shift wouldn't make sense for Word#)

iShiftL# :: Int# -> Int# -> Int# Source

Shift the argument left by the specified number of bits (which must be non-negative).

iShiftRA# :: Int# -> Int# -> Int# Source

Shift the argument right (signed) by the specified number of bits (which must be non-negative). The RA means "right, arithmetic" (as opposed to RL for logical)

iShiftRL# :: Int# -> Int# -> Int# Source

Shift the argument right (unsigned) by the specified number of bits (which must be non-negative). The RL means "right, logical" (as opposed to RA for arithmetic)

uncheckedShiftL64# :: Word# -> Int# -> Word# Source

uncheckedShiftRL64# :: Word# -> Int# -> Word# Source

uncheckedIShiftL64# :: Int# -> Int# -> Int# Source

uncheckedIShiftRA64# :: Int# -> Int# -> Int# Source

isTrue# :: Int# -> Bool Source

Alias for `tagToEnum#`

. Returns True if its parameter is 1# and False if it is 0#.

build :: forall a. (forall b. (a -> b -> b) -> b -> b) -> [a] Source

A list producer that can be fused with `foldr`

. This function is merely

build g = g (:) []

but GHC's simplifier will transform an expression of the form `foldr k z (build g)`

, which may arise after inlining, to `g k z`

, which avoids producing an intermediate list.

augment :: forall a. (forall b. (a -> b -> b) -> b -> b) -> [a] -> [a] Source

A list producer that can be fused with `foldr`

. This function is merely

augment g xs = g (:) xs

but GHC's simplifier will transform an expression of the form `foldr k z (augment g xs)`

, which may arise after inlining, to `g k (foldr k z xs)`

, which avoids producing an intermediate list.

Class for string-like datastructures; used by the overloaded string extension (-XOverloadedStrings in GHC).

fromString :: String -> a Source

breakpoint :: a -> a Source

breakpointCond :: Bool -> a -> a Source

The `lazy`

function restrains strictness analysis a little. The call `lazy e`

means the same as `e`

, but `lazy`

has a magical property so far as strictness analysis is concerned: it is lazy in its first argument, even though its semantics is strict. After strictness analysis has run, calls to `lazy`

are inlined to be the identity function.

This behaviour is occasionally useful when controlling evaluation order. Notably, `lazy`

is used in the library definition of `par`

:

par :: a -> b -> b par x y = case (par# x) of _ -> lazy y

If `lazy`

were not lazy, `par`

would look strict in `y`

which would defeat the whole purpose of `par`

.

Like `seq`

, the argument of `lazy`

can have an unboxed type.

The call `inline f`

arranges that `f`

is inlined, regardless of its size. More precisely, the call `inline f`

rewrites to the right-hand side of `f`

's definition. This allows the programmer to control inlining from a particular call site rather than the definition site of the function (c.f. `INLINE`

pragmas).

This inlining occurs regardless of the argument to the call or the size of `f`

's definition; it is unconditional. The main caveat is that `f`

's definition must be visible to the compiler; it is therefore recommended to mark the function with an `INLINABLE`

pragma at its definition so that GHC guarantees to record its unfolding regardless of size.

If no inlining takes place, the `inline`

function expands to the identity function in Phase zero, so its use imposes no overhead.

These are available from the *Trustworthy* module Data.Coerce as well

Since: 4.7.0.0

coerce :: Coercible * a b => a -> b Source

The function `coerce`

allows you to safely convert between values of types that have the same representation with no run-time overhead. In the simplest case you can use it instead of a newtype constructor, to go from the newtype's concrete type to the abstract type. But it also works in more complicated settings, e.g. converting a list of newtypes to a list of concrete types.

This two-parameter class has instances for types `a`

and `b`

if the compiler can infer that they have the same representation. This class does not have regular instances; instead they are created on-the-fly during type-checking. Trying to manually declare an instance of `Coercible`

is an error.

Nevertheless one can pretend that the following three kinds of instances exist. First, as a trivial base-case:

instance a a

Furthermore, for every type constructor there is an instance that allows to coerce under the type constructor. For example, let `D`

be a prototypical type constructor (`data`

or `newtype`

) with three type arguments, which have roles `nominal`

, `representational`

resp. `phantom`

. Then there is an instance of the form

instance Coercible b b' => Coercible (D a b c) (D a b' c')

Note that the `nominal`

type arguments are equal, the `representational`

type arguments can differ, but need to have a `Coercible`

instance themself, and the `phantom`

type arguments can be changed arbitrarily.

The third kind of instance exists for every `newtype NT = MkNT T`

and comes in two variants, namely

instance Coercible a T => Coercible a NT

instance Coercible T b => Coercible NT b

This instance is only usable if the constructor `MkNT`

is in scope.

If, as a library author of a type constructor like `Set a`

, you want to prevent a user of your module to write `coerce :: Set T -> Set NT`

, you need to set the role of `Set`

's type parameter to `nominal`

, by writing

type role Set nominal

For more details about this feature, please refer to Safe Coercions by Joachim Breitner, Richard A. Eisenberg, Simon Peyton Jones and Stephanie Weirich.

Since: 4.7.0.0

The `Down`

type allows you to reverse sort order conveniently. A value of type `Down a`

contains a value of type `a`

(represented as `Down a`

). If `a`

has an `Ord`

instance associated with it then comparing two values thus wrapped will give you the opposite of their normal sort order. This is particularly useful when sorting in generalised list comprehensions, as in: `then sortWith by Down x`

Provides `Show`

and `Read`

instances (*since: 4.7.0.0*).

Since: 4.6.0.0

Down a |

groupWith :: Ord b => (a -> b) -> [a] -> [[a]] Source

The `groupWith`

function uses the user supplied function which projects an element out of every list element in order to first sort the input list and then to form groups by equality on these projected elements

sortWith :: Ord b => (a -> b) -> [a] -> [a] Source

The `sortWith`

function sorts a list of elements using the user supplied function to project something out of each element

the :: Eq a => [a] -> a Source

`the`

ensures that all the elements of the list are identical and then returns that unique element

traceEvent :: String -> IO () Source

Deprecated: Use `traceEvent`

or `traceEventIO`

data SpecConstrAnnotation Source

NoSpecConstr | |

ForceSpecConstr |

currentCallStack :: IO [String] Source

returns a '[String]' representing the current call stack. This can be useful for debugging.

The implementation uses the call-stack simulation maintined by the profiler, so it only works if the program was compiled with `-prof`

and contains suitable SCC annotations (e.g. by using `-fprof-auto`

). Otherwise, the list returned is likely to be empty or uninformative.

Since: 4.5.0.0

data Constraint :: BOX Source

The `IsList`

class and its methods are intended to be used in conjunction with the OverloadedLists extension.

Since: 4.7.0.0

The `Item`

type function returns the type of items of the structure `l`

.

fromList :: [Item l] -> l Source

The `fromList`

function constructs the structure `l`

from the given list of `Item l`

fromListN :: Int -> [Item l] -> l Source

The `fromListN`

function takes the input list's length as a hint. Its behaviour should be equivalent to `fromList`

. The hint can be used to construct the structure `l`

more efficiently compared to `fromList`

. If the given hint does not equal to the input list's length the behaviour of `fromListN`

is not specified.

toList :: l -> [Item l] Source

The `toList`

function extracts a list of `Item l`

from the structure `l`

. It should satisfy fromList . toList = id.

© The University of Glasgow and others

Licensed under a BSD-style license (see top of the page).

https://downloads.haskell.org/~ghc/7.10.3/docs/html/libraries/base-4.8.2.0/GHC-Exts.html