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/Mongoose

Mongoose API

index.js

Mongoose#Aggregate()

The Mongoose Aggregate constructor

Mongoose#CastError(type, value, path, [reason])

The Mongoose CastError constructor

Parameters:

  • type <String> The name of the type
  • value <Any> The value that failed to cast
  • path <String> The path a.b.c in the doc where this cast error occurred
  • [reason] <Error> The original error that was thrown

Mongoose#Collection()

The Mongoose Collection constructor

Mongoose#connect(uri(s), [options], [options.useMongoClient], [callback])

Opens the default mongoose connection.

Parameters:

  • uri(s) <String>
  • [options] <Object>
  • [options.useMongoClient] <Boolean> false by default, set to true to use new mongoose connection logic
  • [callback] <Function>

Returns:

If arguments are passed, they are proxied to either
Connection#open or
Connection#openSet appropriately.

Options passed take precedence over options included in connection strings.

Example:

mongoose.connect('mongodb://user:pass@localhost:port/database');

// replica sets
var uri = 'mongodb://user:pass@localhost:port,anotherhost:port,yetanother:port/mydatabase';
mongoose.connect(uri);

// with options
mongoose.connect(uri, options);

// connecting to multiple mongos
var uri = 'mongodb://hostA:27501,hostB:27501';
var opts = { mongos: true };
mongoose.connect(uri, opts);

// optional callback that gets fired when initial connection completed
var uri = 'mongodb://nonexistent.domain:27000';
mongoose.connect(uri, function(error) {
  // if error is truthy, the initial connection failed.
})

Mongoose#Connection()

The Mongoose Connection constructor

Mongoose#createConnection([uri], [options], [options.config], [options.config.autoIndex], [options.useMongoClient])

Creates a Connection instance.

Parameters:

  • [uri] <String> a mongodb:// URI
  • [options] <Object> options to pass to the driver
  • [options.config] <Object> mongoose-specific options
  • [options.config.autoIndex] <Boolean> set to false to disable automatic index creation for all models associated with this connection.
  • [options.useMongoClient] <Boolean> false by default, set to true to use new mongoose connection logic

Returns:

  • <Connection, Promise> the created Connection object, or promise that resolves to the connection if `useMongoClient` option specified.

Each connection instance maps to a single database. This method is helpful when mangaging multiple db connections.

If arguments are passed, they are proxied to either Connection#open or Connection#openSet appropriately. This means we can pass db, server, and replset options to the driver. Note that the safe option specified in your schema will overwrite the safe db option specified here unless you set your schemas safe option to undefined. See this for more information.

Options passed take precedence over options included in connection strings.

Example:

// with mongodb:// URI
db = mongoose.createConnection('mongodb://user:pass@localhost:port/database');

// and options
var opts = { db: { native_parser: true }}
db = mongoose.createConnection('mongodb://user:pass@localhost:port/database', opts);

// replica sets
db = mongoose.createConnection('mongodb://user:pass@localhost:port,anotherhost:port,yetanother:port/database');

// and options
var opts = { replset: { strategy: 'ping', rs_name: 'testSet' }}
db = mongoose.createConnection('mongodb://user:pass@localhost:port,anotherhost:port,yetanother:port/database', opts);

// with [host, database_name[, port] signature
db = mongoose.createConnection('localhost', 'database', port)

// and options
var opts = { server: { auto_reconnect: false }, user: 'username', pass: 'mypassword' }
db = mongoose.createConnection('localhost', 'database', port, opts)

// initialize now, connect later
db = mongoose.createConnection();
db.open('localhost', 'database', port, [opts]);

Mongoose#disconnect([fn])

Disconnects all connections.

Parameters:

  • [fn] <Function> called after all connection close.

Returns:

Mongoose#Document()

The Mongoose Document constructor.

Mongoose#DocumentProvider()

The Mongoose DocumentProvider constructor.

Mongoose#Error()

The MongooseError constructor.

Mongoose#get(key)

Gets mongoose options

Parameters:

Example:

mongoose.get('test') // returns the 'test' value

Mongoose#getPromiseConstructor()

Returns the current ES6-style promise constructor. In Mongoose 4.x,
equivalent to mongoose.Promise.ES6, but will change once we get rid
of the .ES6 bit.

Mongoose#model(name, [schema], [collection], [skipInit])

Defines a model or retrieves it.

Parameters:

  • name <String, Function> model name or class extending Model
  • [schema] <Schema>
  • [collection] <String> name (optional, inferred from model name)
  • [skipInit] <Boolean> whether to skip initialization (defaults to false)

Models defined on the mongoose instance are available to all connection created by the same mongoose instance.

Example:

var mongoose = require('mongoose');

// define an Actor model with this mongoose instance
mongoose.model('Actor', new Schema({ name: String }));

// create a new connection
var conn = mongoose.createConnection(..);

// retrieve the Actor model
var Actor = conn.model('Actor');

When no collection argument is passed, Mongoose produces a collection name by passing the model name to the utils.toCollectionName method. This method pluralizes the name. If you don't like this behavior, either pass a collection name or set your schemas collection name option.

Example:

var schema = new Schema({ name: String }, { collection: 'actor' });

// or

schema.set('collection', 'actor');

// or

var collectionName = 'actor'
var M = mongoose.model('Actor', schema, collectionName)

Mongoose#Model()

The Mongoose Model constructor.

Mongoose#modelNames()

Returns an array of model names created on this instance of Mongoose.

Returns:

Note:

Does not include names of models created using connection.model().

Mongoose()

Mongoose constructor.

The exports object of the mongoose module is an instance of this class.
Most apps will only use this one instance.

Mongoose#Mongoose()

The Mongoose constructor

The exports of the mongoose module is an instance of this class.

Example:

var mongoose = require('mongoose');
var mongoose2 = new mongoose.Mongoose();

Mongoose#plugin(fn, [opts])

Declares a global plugin executed on all Schemas.

Parameters:

Returns:

See:

Equivalent to calling .plugin(fn) on each Schema you create.

function Object() { [native code] }#Promise()

The Mongoose Promise constructor.

Mongoose#PromiseProvider()

Storage layer for mongoose promises

Mongoose#Query()

The Mongoose Query constructor.

Mongoose#Schema()

The Mongoose Schema constructor

Example:

var mongoose = require('mongoose');
var Schema = mongoose.Schema;
var CatSchema = new Schema(..);

Mongoose#SchemaType()

The Mongoose SchemaType constructor

Mongoose#set(key, value)

Sets mongoose options

Parameters:

Example:

mongoose.set('test', value) // sets the 'test' option to `value`

mongoose.set('debug', true) // enable logging collection methods + arguments to the console

mongoose.set('debug', function(collectionName, methodName, arg1, arg2...) {}); // use custom function to log collection methods + arguments

()

Expose connection states for user-land

Mongoose#VirtualType()

The Mongoose VirtualType constructor

Mongoose#connection

The default connection of the mongoose module.

Example:

var mongoose = require('mongoose');
mongoose.connect(...);
mongoose.connection.on('error', cb);

This is the connection used by default for every model created using mongoose.model.

Returns:

Mongoose#mongo

The node-mongodb-native driver Mongoose uses.

Mongoose#mquery

The mquery query builder Mongoose uses.

Mongoose#SchemaTypes

The various Mongoose SchemaTypes.

Note:

Alias of mongoose.Schema.Types for backwards compatibility.

Mongoose#Types

The various Mongoose Types.

Example:

var mongoose = require('mongoose');
var array = mongoose.Types.Array;

Types:

Using this exposed access to the ObjectId type, we can construct ids on demand.

var ObjectId = mongoose.Types.ObjectId;
var id1 = new ObjectId;

Mongoose#version

The Mongoose version

aggregate.js

Aggregate#addCursorFlag(flag, value)

Adds a cursor flag

Parameters:

See:

Example:

Model.aggregate(..).addCursorFlag('noCursorTimeout', true).exec();

Aggregate([ops])

Aggregate constructor used for building aggregation pipelines.

Parameters:

  • [ops] <Object, Array> aggregation operator(s) or operator array

Example:

new Aggregate();
new Aggregate({ $project: { a: 1, b: 1 } });
new Aggregate({ $project: { a: 1, b: 1 } }, { $skip: 5 });
new Aggregate([{ $project: { a: 1, b: 1 } }, { $skip: 5 }]);

Returned when calling Model.aggregate().

Example:

Model
.aggregate({ $match: { age: { $gte: 21 }}})
.unwind('tags')
.exec(callback)

Note:

  • The documents returned are plain javascript objects, not mongoose documents (since any shape of document can be returned).
  • Requires MongoDB >= 2.1
  • Mongoose does not cast pipeline stages. new Aggregate({ $match: { _id: '00000000000000000000000a' } }); will not work unless _id is a string in the database. Use new Aggregate({ $match: { _id: mongoose.Types.ObjectId('00000000000000000000000a') } }); instead.

Aggregate#allowDiskUse(value, [tags])

Sets the allowDiskUse option for the aggregation query (ignored for < 2.6.0)

Parameters:

  • value <Boolean> Should tell server it can use hard drive to store data during aggregation.
  • [tags] <Array> optional tags for this query

See:

Example:

Model.aggregate(..).allowDiskUse(true).exec(callback)

Aggregate#append(ops)

Appends new operators to this aggregate pipeline

Parameters:

  • ops <Object> operator(s) to append

Returns:

Examples:

aggregate.append({ $project: { field: 1 }}, { $limit: 2 });

// or pass an array
var pipeline = [{ $match: { daw: 'Logic Audio X' }} ];
aggregate.append(pipeline);

Aggregate#collation(collation, value)

Adds a collation

Parameters:

See:

Example:

Model.aggregate(..).collation({ locale: 'en_US', strength: 1 }).exec();

Aggregate#cursor(options)

Sets the cursor option option for the aggregation query (ignored for < 2.6.0).
Note the different syntax below: .exec() returns a cursor object, and no callback
is necessary.

Parameters:

  • options <Object> set the cursor batch size

See:

Example:

var cursor = Model.aggregate(..).cursor({ batchSize: 1000 }).exec();
cursor.each(function(error, doc) {
  // use doc
});

Aggregate#exec([callback])

Executes the aggregate pipeline on the currently bound Model.

Parameters:

Returns:

See:

Example:

aggregate.exec(callback);

// Because a promise is returned, the `callback` is optional.
var promise = aggregate.exec();
promise.then(..);

Aggregate#explain(callback)

Execute the aggregation with explain

Parameters:

Returns:

Example:

Model.aggregate(..).explain(callback)

Aggregate#facet(facet)

Combines multiple aggregation pipelines.

Parameters:

Returns:

See:

Example:

Model.aggregate(...)
 .facet({
   books: [{ groupBy: '$author' }],
   price: [{ $bucketAuto: { groupBy: '$price', buckets: 2 } }]
 })
 .exec();

// Output: { books: [...], price: [{...}, {...}] }

Aggregate#graphLookup(options)

Appends new custom $graphLookup operator(s) to this aggregate pipeline, performing a recursive search on a collection.

Parameters:

  • options <Object> to $graphLookup as described in the above link

Returns:

Note that graphLookup can only consume at most 100MB of memory, and does not allow disk use even if { allowDiskUse: true } is specified.

Examples:

// Suppose we have a collection of courses, where a document might look like `{ _id: 0, name: 'Calculus', prerequisite: 'Trigonometry'}` and `{ _id: 0, name: 'Trigonometry', prerequisite: 'Algebra' }`
 aggregate.graphLookup({ from: 'courses', startWith: '$prerequisite', connectFromField: 'prerequisite', connectToField: 'name', as: 'prerequisites', maxDepth: 3 }) // this will recursively search the 'courses' collection up to 3 prerequisites

Aggregate#group(arg)

Appends a new custom $group operator to this aggregate pipeline.

Parameters:

  • arg <Object> $group operator contents

Returns:

See:

Examples:

aggregate.group({ _id: "$department" });

Aggregate#limit(num)

Appends a new $limit operator to this aggregate pipeline.

Parameters:

  • num <Number> maximum number of records to pass to the next stage

Returns:

See:

Examples:

aggregate.limit(10);

Aggregate#lookup(options)

Appends new custom $lookup operator(s) to this aggregate pipeline.

Parameters:

  • options <Object> to $lookup as described in the above link

Returns:

See:

Examples:

aggregate.lookup({ from: 'users', localField: 'userId', foreignField: '_id', as: 'users' });

Aggregate#match(arg)

Appends a new custom $match operator to this aggregate pipeline.

Parameters:

  • arg <Object> $match operator contents

Returns:

See:

Examples:

aggregate.match({ department: { $in: [ "sales", "engineering" ] } });

Aggregate#model(model)

Binds this aggregate to a model.

Parameters:

  • model <Model> the model to which the aggregate is to be bound

Returns:

Aggregate#near(parameters)

Appends a new $geoNear operator to this aggregate pipeline.

Parameters:

Returns:

See:

NOTE:

MUST be used as the first operator in the pipeline.

Examples:

aggregate.near({
  near: [40.724, -73.997],
  distanceField: "dist.calculated", // required
  maxDistance: 0.008,
  query: { type: "public" },
  includeLocs: "dist.location",
  uniqueDocs: true,
  num: 5
});

Aggregate#project(arg)

Appends a new $project operator to this aggregate pipeline.

Parameters:

Returns:

See:

Mongoose query selection syntax is also supported.

Examples:

// include a, include b, exclude _id
aggregate.project("a b -_id");

// or you may use object notation, useful when
// you have keys already prefixed with a "-"
aggregate.project({a: 1, b: 1, _id: 0});

// reshaping documents
aggregate.project({
    newField: '$b.nested'
  , plusTen: { $add: ['$val', 10]}
  , sub: {
       name: '$a'
    }
})

// etc
aggregate.project({ salary_k: { $divide: [ "$salary", 1000 ] } });

Aggregate#read(pref, [tags])

Sets the readPreference option for the aggregation query.

Parameters:

  • pref <String> one of the listed preference options or their aliases
  • [tags] <Array> optional tags for this query

Example:

Model.aggregate(..).read('primaryPreferred').exec(callback)

Aggregate#sample(size)

Appepnds new custom $sample operator(s) to this aggregate pipeline.

Parameters:

  • size <Number> number of random documents to pick

Returns:

See:

Examples:

aggregate.sample(3); // Add a pipeline that picks 3 random documents

Aggregate#skip(num)

Appends a new $skip operator to this aggregate pipeline.

Parameters:

  • num <Number> number of records to skip before next stage

Returns:

See:

Examples:

aggregate.skip(10);

Aggregate#sort(arg)

Appends a new $sort operator to this aggregate pipeline.

Parameters:

Returns:

See:

If an object is passed, values allowed are asc, desc, ascending, descending, 1, and -1.

If a string is passed, it must be a space delimited list of path names. The sort order of each path is ascending unless the path name is prefixed with - which will be treated as descending.

Examples:

// these are equivalent
aggregate.sort({ field: 'asc', test: -1 });
aggregate.sort('field -test');

Aggregate#then([resolve], [reject])

Provides promise for aggregate.

Parameters:

Returns:

See:

Example:

Model.aggregate(..).then(successCallback, errorCallback);

Aggregate#unwind(fields)

Appends new custom $unwind operator(s) to this aggregate pipeline.

Parameters:

  • fields <String> the field(s) to unwind

Returns:

See:

Note that the $unwind operator requires the path name to start with '$'.
Mongoose will prepend '$' if the specified field doesn't start '$'.

Examples:

aggregate.unwind("tags");
aggregate.unwind("a", "b", "c");

browser.js

function Object() { [native code] }#Promise()

The Mongoose Promise constructor.

exports.Document()

The Mongoose browser Document constructor.

exports.Error()

The MongooseError constructor.

exports.PromiseProvider()

Storage layer for mongoose promises

exports.Schema()

The Mongoose Schema constructor

Example:

var mongoose = require('mongoose');
var Schema = mongoose.Schema;
var CatSchema = new Schema(..);

exports.VirtualType()

The Mongoose VirtualType constructor

exports#SchemaTypes

The various Mongoose SchemaTypes.

Note:

Alias of mongoose.Schema.Types for backwards compatibility.

exports#Types

The various Mongoose Types.

Example:

var mongoose = require('mongoose');
var array = mongoose.Types.Array;

Types:

Using this exposed access to the ObjectId type, we can construct ids on demand.

var ObjectId = mongoose.Types.ObjectId;
var id1 = new ObjectId;

connection.js

Connection(base)

Connection constructor

Parameters:

Events:

  • connecting: Emitted when connection.{open,openSet}() is executed on this connection.

  • connected: Emitted when this connection successfully connects to the db. May be emitted multiple times in reconnected scenarios.

  • open: Emitted after we connected and onOpen is executed on all of this connections models.

  • disconnecting: Emitted when connection.close() was executed.

  • disconnected: Emitted after getting disconnected from the db.

  • close: Emitted after we disconnected and onClose executed on all of this connections models.

  • reconnected: Emitted after we connected and subsequently disconnected, followed by successfully another successfull connection.

  • error: Emitted when an error occurs on this connection.

  • fullsetup: Emitted in a replica-set scenario, when primary and at least one seconaries specified in the connection string are connected.

  • all: Emitted in a replica-set scenario, when all nodes specified in the connection string are connected.

For practical reasons, a Connection equals a Db.

(connection_string, [database], [port], [options], [callback])

Opens the connection to MongoDB.

Parameters:

  • connection_string <String> mongodb://uri or the host to which you are connecting
  • [database] <String> database name
  • [port] <Number> database port
  • [options] <Object> options
  • [callback] <Function>

options is a hash with the following possible properties:

config  - passed to the connection config instance
db      - passed to the connection db instance
server  - passed to the connection server instance(s)
replset - passed to the connection ReplSet instance
user    - username for authentication
pass    - password for authentication
auth    - options for authentication (see http://mongodb.github.com/node-mongodb-native/api-generated/db.html#authenticate)

Notes:

Mongoose forces the db option forceServerObjectId false and cannot be overridden.
Mongoose defaults the server auto_reconnect options to true which can be overridden.
See the node-mongodb-native driver instance for options that it understands.

Options passed take precedence over options included in connection strings.

Connection#dropDatabase(callback)

Helper for dropDatabase().

Parameters:

Returns:

(uris, [database], [options], [callback])

Opens the connection to a replica set.

Parameters:

  • uris <String> MongoDB connection string
  • [database] <String> database name if not included in uris
  • [options] <Object> passed to the internal driver
  • [callback] <Function>

Example:

var db = mongoose.createConnection();
db.openSet("mongodb://user:pwd@localhost:27020,localhost:27021,localhost:27012/mydb");

The database name and/or auth need only be included in one URI.
The options is a hash which is passed to the internal driver connection object.

Valid options

db      - passed to the connection db instance
server  - passed to the connection server instance(s)
replset - passed to the connection ReplSetServer instance
user    - username for authentication
pass    - password for authentication
auth    - options for authentication (see http://mongodb.github.com/node-mongodb-native/api-generated/db.html#authenticate)
mongos  - Boolean - if true, enables High Availability support for mongos

Options passed take precedence over options included in connection strings.

Notes:

If connecting to multiple mongos servers, set the mongos option to true.

conn.open('mongodb://mongosA:27501,mongosB:27501', { mongos: true }, cb);

Mongoose forces the db option forceServerObjectId false and cannot be overridden.
Mongoose defaults the server auto_reconnect options to true which can be overridden.
See the node-mongodb-native driver instance for options that it understands.

Options passed take precedence over options included in connection strings.

Connection#close([callback])

Closes the connection

Parameters:

Returns:

Connection#collection(name, [options])

Retrieves a collection, creating it if not cached.

Parameters:

  • name <String> of the collection
  • [options] <Object> optional collection options

Returns:

Not typically needed by applications. Just talk to your collection through your model.

Connection#model(name, [schema], [collection])

Defines or retrieves a model.

Parameters:

  • name <String> the model name
  • [schema] <Schema> a schema. necessary when defining a model
  • [collection] <String> name of mongodb collection (optional) if not given it will be induced from model name

Returns:

  • <Model> The compiled model
var mongoose = require('mongoose');
var db = mongoose.createConnection(..);
db.model('Venue', new Schema(..));
var Ticket = db.model('Ticket', new Schema(..));
var Venue = db.model('Venue');

When no collection argument is passed, Mongoose produces a collection name by passing the model name to the utils.toCollectionName method. This method pluralizes the name. If you don't like this behavior, either pass a collection name or set your schemas collection name option.

Example:

var schema = new Schema({ name: String }, { collection: 'actor' });

// or

schema.set('collection', 'actor');

// or

var collectionName = 'actor'
var M = conn.model('Actor', schema, collectionName)

Connection#modelNames()

Returns an array of model names created on this connection.

Returns:

Connection#config

A hash of the global options that are associated with this connection

Connection#db

The mongodb.Db instance, set when the connection is opened

Connection#collections

A hash of the collections associated with this connection

Connection#readyState

Connection ready state

  • 0 = disconnected
  • 1 = connected
  • 2 = connecting
  • 3 = disconnecting

Each state change emits its associated event name.

Example

conn.on('connected', callback);
conn.on('disconnected', callback);

cursor/AggregationCursor.js

AggregationCursor#addCursorFlag(flag, value)

Adds a cursor flag.
Useful for setting the noCursorTimeout and tailable flags.

Parameters:

Returns:

AggregationCursor(agg, options)

An AggregationCursor is a concurrency primitive for processing aggregation
results one document at a time. It is analogous to QueryCursor.

Parameters:

Inherits:

Events:

  • cursor: Emitted when the cursor is created

  • error: Emitted when an error occurred

  • data: Emitted when the stream is flowing and the next doc is ready

  • end: Emitted when the stream is exhausted

An AggregationCursor fulfills the Node.js streams3 API,
in addition to several other mechanisms for loading documents from MongoDB
one at a time.

Unless you're an advanced user, do not instantiate this class directly.
Use Aggregate#cursor() instead.

AggregationCursor#close(callback)

Marks this cursor as closed. Will stop streaming and subsequent calls to
next() will error.

Parameters:

Returns:

See:

AggregationCursor#eachAsync(fn, [callback])

Execute fn for every document in the cursor. If fn returns a promise,
will wait for the promise to resolve before iterating on to the next one.
Returns a promise that resolves when done.

Parameters:

  • fn <Function>
  • [callback] <Function> executed when all docs have been processed

Returns:

AggregationCursor#map(fn)

Registers a transform function which subsequently maps documents retrieved
via the streams interface or .next()

Parameters:

Returns:

Example

// Map documents returned by `data` events
Thing.
  find({ name: /^hello/ }).
  cursor().
  map(function (doc) {
   doc.foo = "bar";
   return doc;
  })
  on('data', function(doc) { console.log(doc.foo); });

// Or map documents returned by `.next()`
var cursor = Thing.find({ name: /^hello/ }).
  cursor().
  map(function (doc) {
    doc.foo = "bar";
    return doc;
  });
cursor.next(function(error, doc) {
  console.log(doc.foo);
});

AggregationCursor#next(callback)

Get the next document from this cursor. Will return null when there are
no documents left.

Parameters:

Returns:

cursor/QueryCursor.js

QueryCursor#addCursorFlag(flag, value)

Adds a cursor flag.
Useful for setting the noCursorTimeout and tailable flags.

Parameters:

Returns:

QueryCursor#close(callback)

Marks this cursor as closed. Will stop streaming and subsequent calls to
next() will error.

Parameters:

Returns:

See:

QueryCursor#eachAsync(fn, [options], [options.parallel], [callback])

Execute fn for every document in the cursor. If fn returns a promise,
will wait for the promise to resolve before iterating on to the next one.
Returns a promise that resolves when done.

Parameters:

  • fn <Function>
  • [options] <Object>
  • [options.parallel] <Number> the number of promises to execute in parallel. Defaults to 1.
  • [callback] <Function> executed when all docs have been processed

Returns:

QueryCursor#map(fn)

Registers a transform function which subsequently maps documents retrieved
via the streams interface or .next()

Parameters:

Returns:

Example

// Map documents returned by `data` events
Thing.
  find({ name: /^hello/ }).
  cursor().
  map(function (doc) {
   doc.foo = "bar";
   return doc;
  })
  on('data', function(doc) { console.log(doc.foo); });

// Or map documents returned by `.next()`
var cursor = Thing.find({ name: /^hello/ }).
  cursor().
  map(function (doc) {
    doc.foo = "bar";
    return doc;
  });
cursor.next(function(error, doc) {
  console.log(doc.foo);
});

QueryCursor#next(callback)

Get the next document from this cursor. Will return null when there are
no documents left.

Parameters:

Returns:

QueryCursor(query, options)

A QueryCursor is a concurrency primitive for processing query results
one document at a time. A QueryCursor fulfills the Node.js streams3 API,
in addition to several other mechanisms for loading documents from MongoDB
one at a time.

Parameters:

  • query <Query>
  • options <Object> query options passed to .find()

Inherits:

Events:

  • cursor: Emitted when the cursor is created

  • error: Emitted when an error occurred

  • data: Emitted when the stream is flowing and the next doc is ready

  • end: Emitted when the stream is exhausted

QueryCursors execute the model's pre find hooks, but not the model's
post find hooks.

Unless you're an advanced user, do not instantiate this class directly.
Use Query#cursor() instead.

document.js

Document#$ignore(path)

Don't run validation on this path or persist changes to this path.

Parameters:

  • path <String> the path to ignore

Example:

doc.foo = null;
doc.$ignore('foo');
doc.save() // changes to foo will not be persisted and validators won't be run

Document#$isDefault([path])

Checks if a path is set to its default.

Parameters:

Returns:

Example

MyModel = mongoose.model('test', { name: { type: String, default: 'Val '} });
var m = new MyModel();
m.$isDefault('name'); // true

Document#depopulate(path)

Takes a populated field and returns it to its unpopulated state.

Parameters:

Returns:

Example:

Model.findOne().populate('author').exec(function (err, doc) {
  console.log(doc.author.name); // Dr.Seuss
  console.log(doc.depopulate('author'));
  console.log(doc.author); // '5144cf8050f071d979c118a7'
})

If the path was not populated, this is a no-op.

Document#equals(doc)

Returns true if the Document stores the same data as doc.

Parameters:

Returns:

Documents are considered equal when they have matching _ids, unless neither
document has an _id, in which case this function falls back to using
deepEqual().

Document#execPopulate()

Explicitly executes population and returns a promise. Useful for ES2015
integration.

Returns:

  • <Promise> promise that resolves to the document when population is done

Example:

var promise = doc.
  populate('company').
  populate({
    path: 'notes',
    match: /airline/,
    select: 'text',
    model: 'modelName'
    options: opts
  }).
  execPopulate();

// summary
doc.execPopulate().then(resolve, reject);

Document#get(path, [type])

Returns the value of a path.

Parameters:

Example

// path
doc.get('age') // 47

// dynamic casting to a string
doc.get('age', String) // "47"

Document#init(doc, fn)

Initializes the document without setters or marking anything modified.

Parameters:

Called internally after a document is returned from mongodb.

Document#inspect()

Helper for console.log

Document#invalidate(path, errorMsg, value, [kind])

Marks a path as invalid, causing validation to fail.

Parameters:

  • path <String> the field to invalidate
  • errorMsg <String, Error> the error which states the reason path was invalid
  • value <Object, String, Number, T> optional invalid value
  • [kind] <String> optional kind property for the error

Returns:

  • <ValidationError> the current ValidationError, with all currently invalidated paths

The errorMsg argument will become the message of the ValidationError.

The value argument (if passed) will be available through the ValidationError.value property.

doc.invalidate('size', 'must be less than 20', 14);

doc.validate(function (err) {
  console.log(err)
  // prints
  { message: 'Validation failed',
    name: 'ValidationError',
    errors:
     { size:
        { message: 'must be less than 20',
          name: 'ValidatorError',
          path: 'size',
          type: 'user defined',
          value: 14 } } }
})

Document#isDirectModified(path)

Returns true if path was directly set and modified, else false.

Parameters:

Returns:

Example

doc.set('documents.0.title', 'changed');
doc.isDirectModified('documents.0.title') // true
doc.isDirectModified('documents') // false

Document#isDirectSelected(path)

Checks if path was explicitly selected. If no projection, always returns
true.

Parameters:

Returns:

Example

Thing.findOne().select('nested.name').exec(function (err, doc) {
   doc.isDirectSelected('nested.name') // true
   doc.isDirectSelected('nested.otherName') // false
   doc.isDirectSelected('nested')  // false
})

Document#isInit(path)

Checks if path was initialized.

Parameters:

Returns:

Document#isModified([path])

Returns true if this document was modified, else false.

Parameters:

Returns:

If path is given, checks if a path or any full path containing path as part of its path chain has been modified.

Example

doc.set('documents.0.title', 'changed');
doc.isModified()                      // true
doc.isModified('documents')           // true
doc.isModified('documents.0.title')   // true
doc.isModified('documents otherProp') // true
doc.isDirectModified('documents')     // false

Document#isSelected(path)

Checks if path was selected in the source query which initialized this document.

Parameters:

Returns:

Example

Thing.findOne().select('name').exec(function (err, doc) {
   doc.isSelected('name') // true
   doc.isSelected('age')  // false
})

Document#markModified(path, [scope])

Marks the path as having pending changes to write to the db.

Parameters:

  • path <String> the path to mark modified
  • [scope] <Document> the scope to run validators with

Very helpful when using Mixed types.

Example:

doc.mixed.type = 'changed';
doc.markModified('mixed.type');
doc.save() // changes to mixed.type are now persisted

Document#modifiedPaths()

Returns the list of paths that have been modified.

Returns:

Document#populate([path], [callback])

Populates document references, executing the callback when complete.
If you want to use promises instead, use this function with
execPopulate()

Parameters:

  • [path] <String, Object> The path to populate or an options object
  • [callback] <Function> When passed, population is invoked

Returns:

Example:

doc
.populate('company')
.populate({
  path: 'notes',
  match: /airline/,
  select: 'text',
  model: 'modelName'
  options: opts
}, function (err, user) {
  assert(doc._id === user._id) // the document itself is passed
})

// summary
doc.populate(path)                   // not executed
doc.populate(options);               // not executed
doc.populate(path, callback)         // executed
doc.populate(options, callback);     // executed
doc.populate(callback);              // executed
doc.populate(options).execPopulate() // executed, returns promise

NOTE:

Population does not occur unless a callback is passed or you explicitly
call execPopulate().
Passing the same path a second time will overwrite the previous path options.
See Model.populate() for explaination of options.

Document#populated(path)

Gets _id(s) used during population of the given path.

Parameters:

Example:

Model.findOne().populate('author').exec(function (err, doc) {
  console.log(doc.author.name)         // Dr.Seuss
  console.log(doc.populated('author')) // '5144cf8050f071d979c118a7'
})

If the path was not populated, undefined is returned.

Document#set(path, val, [type], [options])

Sets the value of a path, or many paths.

Parameters:

  • path <String, Object> path or object of key/vals to set
  • val <Any> the value to set
  • [type] <Schema, String, Number, Buffer, *> optionally specify a type for "on-the-fly" attributes
  • [options] <Object> optionally specify options that modify the behavior of the set

Example:

// path, value
doc.set(path, value)

// object
doc.set({
    path  : value
  , path2 : {
       path  : value
    }
})

// on-the-fly cast to number
doc.set(path, value, Number)

// on-the-fly cast to string
doc.set(path, value, String)

// changing strict mode behavior
doc.set(path, value, { strict: false });

Document#toJSON(options)

The return value of this method is used in calls to JSON.stringify(doc).

Parameters:

Returns:

This method accepts the same options as Document#toObject. To apply the options to every document of your schema by default, set your schemas toJSON option to the same argument.

schema.set('toJSON', { virtuals: true })

See schema options for details.

Document#toObject([options])

Converts this document into a plain javascript object, ready for storage in MongoDB.

Parameters:

Returns:

Buffers are converted to instances of mongodb.Binary for proper storage.

Options:

  • getters apply all getters (path and virtual getters)
  • virtuals apply virtual getters (can override getters option)
  • minimize remove empty objects (defaults to true)
  • transform a transform function to apply to the resulting document before returning
  • depopulate depopulate any populated paths, replacing them with their original refs (defaults to false)
  • versionKey whether to include the version key (defaults to true)
  • retainKeyOrder keep the order of object keys. If this is set to true, Object.keys(new Doc({ a: 1, b: 2}).toObject()) will always produce ['a', 'b'] (defaults to false)

Getters/Virtuals

Example of only applying path getters

doc.toObject({ getters: true, virtuals: false })

Example of only applying virtual getters

doc.toObject({ virtuals: true })

Example of applying both path and virtual getters

doc.toObject({ getters: true })

To apply these options to every document of your schema by default, set your schemas toObject option to the same argument.

schema.set('toObject', { virtuals: true })

Transform

We may need to perform a transformation of the resulting object based on some criteria, say to remove some sensitive information or return a custom object. In this case we set the optional transform function.

Transform functions receive three arguments

function (doc, ret, options) {}
  • doc The mongoose document which is being converted
  • ret The plain object representation which has been converted
  • options The options in use (either schema options or the options passed inline)

Example

// specify the transform schema option
if (!schema.options.toObject) schema.options.toObject = {};
schema.options.toObject.transform = function (doc, ret, options) {
  // remove the _id of every document before returning the result
  delete ret._id;
  return ret;
}

// without the transformation in the schema
doc.toObject(); // { _id: 'anId', name: 'Wreck-it Ralph' }

// with the transformation
doc.toObject(); // { name: 'Wreck-it Ralph' }

With transformations we can do a lot more than remove properties. We can even return completely new customized objects:

if (!schema.options.toObject) schema.options.toObject = {};
schema.options.toObject.transform = function (doc, ret, options) {
  return { movie: ret.name }
}

// without the transformation in the schema
doc.toObject(); // { _id: 'anId', name: 'Wreck-it Ralph' }

// with the transformation
doc.toObject(); // { movie: 'Wreck-it Ralph' }

Note: if a transform function returns undefined, the return value will be ignored.

Transformations may also be applied inline, overridding any transform set in the options:

function xform (doc, ret, options) {
  return { inline: ret.name, custom: true }
}

// pass the transform as an inline option
doc.toObject({ transform: xform }); // { inline: 'Wreck-it Ralph', custom: true }

If you want to skip transformations, use transform: false:

if (!schema.options.toObject) schema.options.toObject = {};
schema.options.toObject.hide = '_id';
schema.options.toObject.transform = function (doc, ret, options) {
  if (options.hide) {
    options.hide.split(' ').forEach(function (prop) {
      delete ret[prop];
    });
  }
  return ret;
}

var doc = new Doc({ _id: 'anId', secret: 47, name: 'Wreck-it Ralph' });
doc.toObject();                                        // { secret: 47, name: 'Wreck-it Ralph' }
doc.toObject({ hide: 'secret _id', transform: false });// { _id: 'anId', secret: 47, name: 'Wreck-it Ralph' }
doc.toObject({ hide: 'secret _id', transform: true }); // { name: 'Wreck-it Ralph' }

Transforms are applied only to the document and are not applied to sub-documents.

Transforms, like all of these options, are also available for toJSON.

See schema options for some more details.

During save, no custom options are applied to the document before being sent to the database.

Document#toString()

Helper for console.log

Document#unmarkModified(path)

Clears the modified state on the specified path.

Parameters:

  • path <String> the path to unmark modified

Example:

doc.foo = 'bar';
doc.unmarkModified('foo');
doc.save() // changes to foo will not be persisted

Document#update(doc, options, callback)

Sends an update command with this document _id as the query selector.

Parameters:

Returns:

Example:

weirdCar.update({$inc: {wheels:1}}, { w: 1 }, callback);

Valid options:

Document#validate(optional, callback)

Executes registered validation rules for this document.

Parameters:

  • optional <Object> options internal options
  • callback <Function> optional callback called after validation completes, passing an error if one occurred

Returns:

Note:

This method is called pre save and if a validation rule is violated, save is aborted and the error is returned to your callback.

Example:

doc.validate(function (err) {
  if (err) handleError(err);
  else // validation passed
});

Document#validateSync(pathsToValidate)

Executes registered validation rules (skipping asynchronous validators) for this document.

Parameters:

  • pathsToValidate <Array, string> only validate the given paths

Returns:

  • <MongooseError, undefined> MongooseError if there are errors during validation, or undefined if there is no error.

Note:

This method is useful if you need synchronous validation.

Example:

var err = doc.validateSync();
if ( err ){
  handleError( err );
} else {
  // validation passed
}

Document#errors

Hash containing current validation errors.

Document#id

The string version of this documents _id.

Note:

This getter exists on all documents by default. The getter can be disabled by setting the id option of its Schema to false at construction time.

new Schema({ name: String }, { id: false });

Document#isNew

Boolean flag specifying if the document is new.

Document#schema

The documents schema.

drivers/node-mongodb-native/collection.js

function Object() { [native code] }#$format()

Formatter for debug print args

function Object() { [native code] }#$print()

Debug print helper

NativeCollection#getIndexes(callback)

Retreives information about this collections indexes.

Parameters:

drivers/node-mongodb-native/connection.js

NativeConnection#useDb(name)

Switches to a different database using the same connection pool.

Parameters:

  • name <String> The database name

Returns:

Returns a new connection object, with the new db.

NativeConnection.STATES

Expose the possible connection states.

error/messages.js

MongooseError.messages()

The default built-in validator error messages. These may be customized.

// customize within each schema or globally like so
var mongoose = require('mongoose');
mongoose.Error.messages.String.enum  = "Your custom message for {PATH}.";

As you might have noticed, error messages support basic templating

  • {PATH} is replaced with the invalid document path
  • {VALUE} is replaced with the invalid value
  • {TYPE} is replaced with the validator type such as "regexp", "min", or "user defined"
  • {MIN} is replaced with the declared min value for the Number.min validator
  • {MAX} is replaced with the declared max value for the Number.max validator

Click the "show code" link below to see all defaults.

error/validation.js

ValidationError#toString()

Console.log helper

error.js

MongooseError(msg)

MongooseError constructor

Parameters:

Inherits:

MongooseError.messages

The default built-in validator error messages.

ES6Promise.js

ES6Promise(fn)

ES6 Promise wrapper constructor.

Parameters:

  • fn <Function> a function which will be called when the promise is resolved that accepts fn(err, ...){} as signature

Promises are returned from executed queries. Example:

var query = Candy.find({ bar: true });
var promise = query.exec();

DEPRECATED. Mongoose 5.0 will use native promises by default (or bluebird,
if native promises are not present) but still
support plugging in your own ES6-compatible promises library. Mongoose 5.0
will not support mpromise.

model.js

Model#$where(argument)

Creates a Query and specifies a $where condition.

Parameters:

  • argument <String, Function> is a javascript string or anonymous function

Returns:

Sometimes you need to query for things in mongodb using a JavaScript expression. You can do so via find({ $where: javascript }), or you can use the mongoose shortcut method $where via a Query chain or from your mongoose Model.

Blog.$where('this.username.indexOf("val") !== -1').exec(function (err, docs) {});

Model#increment()

Signal that we desire an increment of this documents version.

Example:

Model.findById(id, function (err, doc) {
  doc.increment();
  doc.save(function (err) { .. })
})

Model#model(name)

Returns another Model instance.

Parameters:

Example:

var doc = new Tank;
doc.model('User').findById(id, callback);

Model(doc)

Model constructor

Parameters:

  • doc <Object> values with which to create the document

Inherits:

Events:

  • error: If listening to this event, 'error' is emitted when a document was saved without passing a callback and an error occurred. If not listening, the event bubbles to the connection used to create this Model.

  • index: Emitted after Model#ensureIndexes completes. If an error occurred it is passed with the event.

  • index-single-start: Emitted when an individual index starts within Model#ensureIndexes. The fields and options being used to build the index are also passed with the event.

  • index-single-done: Emitted when an individual index finishes within Model#ensureIndexes. If an error occurred it is passed with the event. The fields, options, and index name are also passed.

Provides the interface to MongoDB collections as well as creates document instances.

Model#remove([fn])

Removes this document from the db.

Parameters:

Returns:

Example:

product.remove(function (err, product) {
  if (err) return handleError(err);
  Product.findById(product._id, function (err, product) {
    console.log(product) // null
  })
})

As an extra measure of flow control, remove will return a Promise (bound to fn if passed) so it could be chained, or hooked to recive errors

Example:

product.remove().then(function (product) {
   ...
}).onRejected(function (err) {
   assert.ok(err)
})

Model#save([options], [options.safe], [options.validateBeforeSave], [fn])

Saves this document.

Parameters:

Returns:

See:

Example:

product.sold = Date.now();
product.save(function (err, product, numAffected) {
  if (err) ..
})

The callback will receive three parameters

  1. err if an error occurred
  2. product which is the saved product
  3. numAffected will be 1 when the document was successfully persisted to MongoDB, otherwise 0. Unless you tweak mongoose's internals, you don't need to worry about checking this parameter for errors - checking err is sufficient to make sure your document was properly saved.

As an extra measure of flow control, save will return a Promise.

Example:

product.save().then(function(product) {
   ...
});

For legacy reasons, mongoose stores object keys in reverse order on initial
save. That is, { a: 1, b: 2 } will be saved as { b: 2, a: 1 } in
MongoDB. To override this behavior, set
the toObject.retainKeyOrder option
to true on your schema.

Model.aggregate([...], [callback])

Performs aggregations on the models collection.

Parameters:

  • [...] <Object, Array> aggregation pipeline operator(s) or operator array
  • [callback] <Function>

Returns:

If a callback is passed, the aggregate is executed and a Promise is returned. If a callback is not passed, the aggregate itself is returned.

Example:

// Find the max balance of all accounts
Users.aggregate(
  { $group: { _id: null, maxBalance: { $max: '$balance' }}},
  { $project: { _id: 0, maxBalance: 1 }},
  function (err, res) {
    if (err) return handleError(err);
    console.log(res); // [ { maxBalance: 98000 } ]
  });

// Or use the aggregation pipeline builder.
Users.aggregate()
  .group({ _id: null, maxBalance: { $max: '$balance' } })
  .select('-id maxBalance')
  .exec(function (err, res) {
    if (err) return handleError(err);
    console.log(res); // [ { maxBalance: 98 } ]
});

NOTE:

  • Arguments are not cast to the model's schema because $project operators allow redefining the "shape" of the documents at any stage of the pipeline, which may leave documents in an incompatible format.
  • The documents returned are plain javascript objects, not mongoose documents (since any shape of document can be returned).
  • Requires MongoDB >= 2.1

Model.bulkWrite(ops, [options], [callback])

Sends multiple insertOne, updateOne, updateMany, replaceOne,
deleteOne, and/or deleteMany operations to the MongoDB server in one
command. This is faster than sending multiple independent operations (like)
if you use create()) because with bulkWrite() there is only one round
trip to MongoDB.

Parameters:

  • ops <Array>
  • [options] <Object>
  • [callback] <Function> callback <code>function(error, bulkWriteOpResult) {}</code>

Returns:

  • <Promise> resolves to a `BulkWriteOpResult` if the operation succeeds

Mongoose will perform casting on all operations you provide.

This function does not trigger any middleware. If you need to trigger
save() middleware for every document use create() instead.

Example:

Character.bulkWrite([
  {
    insertOne: {
      document: {
        name: 'Eddard Stark',
        title: 'Warden of the North'
      }
    }
  },
  {
    updateOne: {
      filter: { name: 'Eddard Stark' },
      // If you were using the MongoDB driver directly, you'd need to do
      // `update: { $set: { title: ... } }` but mongoose adds $set for
      // you.
      update: { title: 'Hand of the King' }
    }
  },
  {
    deleteOne: {
      {
        filter: { name: 'Eddard Stark' }
      }
    }
  }
]).then(handleResult);

Model.count(conditions, [callback])

Counts number of matching documents in a database collection.

Parameters:

Returns:

Example:

Adventure.count({ type: 'jungle' }, function (err, count) {
  if (err) ..
  console.log('there are %d jungle adventures', count);
});

Model.create(doc(s), [callback])

Shortcut for saving one or more documents to the database.
MyModel.create(docs) does new MyModel(doc).save() for every doc in
docs.

Parameters:

Returns:

Hooks Triggered

  • save()

Example:

// pass individual docs
Candy.create({ type: 'jelly bean' }, { type: 'snickers' }, function (err, jellybean, snickers) {
  if (err) // ...
});

// pass an array
var array = [{ type: 'jelly bean' }, { type: 'snickers' }];
Candy.create(array, function (err, candies) {
  if (err) // ...

  var jellybean = candies[0];
  var snickers = candies[1];
  // ...
});

// callback is optional; use the returned promise if you like:
var promise = Candy.create({ type: 'jawbreaker' });
promise.then(function (jawbreaker) {
  // ...
})

Model.deleteMany(conditions, [callback])

Deletes all of the documents that match conditions from the collection.
Behaves like remove(), but deletes all documents that match conditions
regardless of the justOne option.

Parameters:

Returns:

Example:

Character.deleteMany({ name: /Stark/, age: { $gte: 18 } }, function (err) {});

Note:

Like Model.remove(), this function does not trigger pre('remove') or post('remove') hooks.

Model.deleteOne(conditions, [callback])

Deletes the first document that matches conditions from the collection.
Behaves like remove(), but deletes at most one document regardless of the
justOne option.

Parameters:

Returns:

Example:

Character.deleteOne({ name: 'Eddard Stark' }, function (err) {});

Note:

Like Model.remove(), this function does not trigger pre('remove') or post('remove') hooks.

Model.discriminator(name, schema)

Adds a discriminator type.

Parameters:

  • name <String> discriminator model name
  • schema <Schema> discriminator model schema

Example:

function BaseSchema() {
  Schema.apply(this, arguments);

  this.add({
    name: String,
    createdAt: Date
  });
}
util.inherits(BaseSchema, Schema);

var PersonSchema = new BaseSchema();
var BossSchema = new BaseSchema({ department: String });

var Person = mongoose.model('Person', PersonSchema);
var Boss = Person.discriminator('Boss', BossSchema);

Model.distinct(field, [conditions], [callback])

Creates a Query for a distinct operation.

Parameters:

Returns:

Passing a callback immediately executes the query.

Example

Link.distinct('url', { clicks: {$gt: 100}}, function (err, result) {
  if (err) return handleError(err);

  assert(Array.isArray(result));
  console.log('unique urls with more than 100 clicks', result);
})

var query = Link.distinct('url');
query.exec(callback);

Model.ensureIndexes([options], [cb])

Sends ensureIndex commands to mongo for each index declared in the schema.

Parameters:

  • [options] <Object> internal options
  • [cb] <Function> optional callback

Returns:

Example:

Event.ensureIndexes(function (err) {
  if (err) return handleError(err);
});

After completion, an index event is emitted on this Model passing an error if one occurred.

Example:

var eventSchema = new Schema({ thing: { type: 'string', unique: true }})
var Event = mongoose.model('Event', eventSchema);

Event.on('index', function (err) {
  if (err) console.error(err); // error occurred during index creation
})

NOTE: It is not recommended that you run this in production. Index creation may impact database performance depending on your load. Use with caution.

The ensureIndex commands are not sent in parallel. This is to avoid the MongoError: cannot add index with a background operation in progress error. See this ticket for more information.

Model.find(conditions, [projection], [options], [callback])

Finds documents

Parameters:

  • conditions <Object>
  • [projection] <Object> optional fields to return (http://bit.ly/1HotzBo)
  • [options] <Object> optional
  • [callback] <Function>

Returns:

The conditions are cast to their respective SchemaTypes before the command is sent.

Examples:

// named john and at least 18
MyModel.find({ name: 'john', age: { $gte: 18 }});

// executes immediately, passing results to callback
MyModel.find({ name: 'john', age: { $gte: 18 }}, function (err, docs) {});

// name LIKE john and only selecting the "name" and "friends" fields, executing immediately
MyModel.find({ name: /john/i }, 'name friends', function (err, docs) { })

// passing options
MyModel.find({ name: /john/i }, null, { skip: 10 })

// passing options and executing immediately
MyModel.find({ name: /john/i }, null, { skip: 10 }, function (err, docs) {});

// executing a query explicitly
var query = MyModel.find({ name: /john/i }, null, { skip: 10 })
query.exec(function (err, docs) {});

// using the promise returned from executing a query
var query = MyModel.find({ name: /john/i }, null, { skip: 10 });
var promise = query.exec();
promise.addBack(function (err, docs) {});

Model.findById(id, [projection], [options], [callback])

Finds a single document by its _id field. findById(id) is almost*
equivalent to findOne({ _id: id }). If you want to query by a document's
_id, use findById() instead of findOne().

Parameters:

Returns:

The id is cast based on the Schema before sending the command.

Note: findById() triggers findOne hooks.

  • Except for how it treats undefined. If you use findOne(), you'll see that findOne(undefined) and findOne({ _id: undefined }) are equivalent to findOne({}) and return arbitrary documents. However, mongoose translates findById(undefined) into findOne({ _id: null }).

Example:

// find adventure by id and execute immediately
Adventure.findById(id, function (err, adventure) {});

// same as above
Adventure.findById(id).exec(callback);

// select only the adventures name and length
Adventure.findById(id, 'name length', function (err, adventure) {});

// same as above
Adventure.findById(id, 'name length').exec(callback);

// include all properties except for `length`
Adventure.findById(id, '-length').exec(function (err, adventure) {});

// passing options (in this case return the raw js objects, not mongoose documents by passing `lean`
Adventure.findById(id, 'name', { lean: true }, function (err, doc) {});

// same as above
Adventure.findById(id, 'name').lean().exec(function (err, doc) {});

Model.findByIdAndRemove(id, [options], [callback])

Issue a mongodb findAndModify remove command by a document's _id field. findByIdAndRemove(id, ...) is equivalent to findOneAndRemove({ _id: id }, ...).

Parameters:

Returns:

Finds a matching document, removes it, passing the found document (if any) to the callback.

Executes immediately if callback is passed, else a Query object is returned.

Options:

Examples:

A.findByIdAndRemove(id, options, callback) // executes
A.findByIdAndRemove(id, options)  // return Query
A.findByIdAndRemove(id, callback) // executes
A.findByIdAndRemove(id) // returns Query
A.findByIdAndRemove()           // returns Query

Model.findByIdAndUpdate(id, [update], [options], [callback])

Issues a mongodb findAndModify update command by a document's _id field.
findByIdAndUpdate(id, ...) is equivalent to findOneAndUpdate({ _id: id }, ...).

Parameters:

Returns:

Finds a matching document, updates it according to the update arg,
passing any options, and returns the found document (if any) to the
callback. The query executes immediately if callback is passed else a
Query object is returned.

This function triggers findOneAndUpdate middleware.

Options:

  • new: bool - true to return the modified document rather than the original. defaults to false
  • upsert: bool - creates the object if it doesn't exist. defaults to false.
  • runValidators: if true, runs update validators on this command. Update validators validate the update operation against the model's schema.
  • setDefaultsOnInsert: if this and upsert are true, mongoose will apply the defaults specified in the model's schema if a new document is created. This option only works on MongoDB >= 2.4 because it relies on MongoDB's $setOnInsert operator.
  • sort: if multiple docs are found by the conditions, sets the sort order to choose which doc to update
  • select: sets the document fields to return
  • passRawResult: if true, passes the raw result from the MongoDB driver as the third callback parameter
  • strict: overwrites the schema's strict mode option for this update
  • runSettersOnQuery: bool - if true, run all setters defined on the associated model's schema for all fields defined in the query and the update.

Examples:

A.findByIdAndUpdate(id, update, options, callback) // executes
A.findByIdAndUpdate(id, update, options)  // returns Query
A.findByIdAndUpdate(id, update, callback) // executes
A.findByIdAndUpdate(id, update)           // returns Query
A.findByIdAndUpdate()                     // returns Query

Note:

All top level update keys which are not atomic operation names are treated as set operations:

Example:

Model.findByIdAndUpdate(id, { name: 'jason borne' }, options, callback)

// is sent as
Model.findByIdAndUpdate(id, { $set: { name: 'jason borne' }}, options, callback)

This helps prevent accidentally overwriting your document with { name: 'jason borne' }.

Note:

Values are cast to their appropriate types when using the findAndModify helpers.
However, the below are not executed by default.

  • defaults. Use the setDefaultsOnInsert option to override.
  • setters. Use the runSettersOnQuery option to override.

findAndModify helpers support limited validation. You can
enable these by setting the runValidators options,
respectively.

If you need full-fledged validation, use the traditional approach of first
retrieving the document.

Model.findById(id, function (err, doc) {
  if (err) ..
  doc.name = 'jason borne';
  doc.save(callback);
});

Model.findOne([conditions], [projection], [options], [callback])

Finds one document.

Parameters:

  • [conditions] <Object>
  • [projection] <Object> optional fields to return (http://bit.ly/1HotzBo)
  • [options] <Object> optional
  • [callback] <Function>

Returns:

The conditions are cast to their respective SchemaTypes before the command is sent.

Note: conditions is optional, and if conditions is null or undefined,
mongoose will send an empty findOne command to MongoDB, which will return
an arbitrary document. If you're querying by _id, use findById() instead.

Example:

// find one iphone adventures - iphone adventures??
Adventure.findOne({ type: 'iphone' }, function (err, adventure) {});

// same as above
Adventure.findOne({ type: 'iphone' }).exec(function (err, adventure) {});

// select only the adventures name
Adventure.findOne({ type: 'iphone' }, 'name', function (err, adventure) {});

// same as above
Adventure.findOne({ type: 'iphone' }, 'name').exec(function (err, adventure) {});

// specify options, in this case lean
Adventure.findOne({ type: 'iphone' }, 'name', { lean: true }, callback);

// same as above
Adventure.findOne({ type: 'iphone' }, 'name', { lean: true }).exec(callback);

// chaining findOne queries (same as above)
Adventure.findOne({ type: 'iphone' }).select('name').lean().exec(callback);

Model.findOneAndRemove(conditions, [options], [callback])

Issue a mongodb findAndModify remove command.

Parameters:

Returns:

See:

Finds a matching document, removes it, passing the found document (if any) to the callback.

Executes immediately if callback is passed else a Query object is returned.

Options:

Examples:

A.findOneAndRemove(conditions, options, callback) // executes
A.findOneAndRemove(conditions, options)  // return Query
A.findOneAndRemove(conditions, callback) // executes
A.findOneAndRemove(conditions) // returns Query
A.findOneAndRemove()           // returns Query

Values are cast to their appropriate types when using the findAndModify helpers.
However, the below are not executed by default.

  • defaults. Use the setDefaultsOnInsert option to override.
  • setters. Use the runSettersOnQuery option to override.

findAndModify helpers support limited validation. You can
enable these by setting the runValidators options,
respectively.

If you need full-fledged validation, use the traditional approach of first
retrieving the document.

Model.findById(id, function (err, doc) {
  if (err) ..
  doc.name = 'jason borne';
  doc.save(callback);
});

Model.findOneAndUpdate([conditions], [update], [options], [callback])

Issues a mongodb findAndModify update command.

Parameters:

Returns:

See:

Finds a matching document, updates it according to the update arg, passing any options, and returns the found document (if any) to the callback. The query executes immediately if callback is passed else a Query object is returned.

Options:

  • new: bool - if true, return the modified document rather than the original. defaults to false (changed in 4.0)
  • upsert: bool - creates the object if it doesn't exist. defaults to false.
  • fields: {Object|String} - Field selection. Equivalent to .select(fields).findOneAndUpdate()
  • maxTimeMS: puts a time limit on the query - requires mongodb >= 2.6.0
  • sort: if multiple docs are found by the conditions, sets the sort order to choose which doc to update
  • runValidators: if true, runs update validators on this command. Update validators validate the update operation against the model's schema.
  • setDefaultsOnInsert: if this and upsert are true, mongoose will apply the defaults specified in the model's schema if a new document is created. This option only works on MongoDB >= 2.4 because it relies on MongoDB's $setOnInsert operator.
  • passRawResult: if true, passes the raw result from the MongoDB driver as the third callback parameter
  • strict: overwrites the schema's strict mode option for this update
  • runSettersOnQuery: bool - if true, run all setters defined on the associated model's schema for all fields defined in the query and the update.

Examples:

A.findOneAndUpdate(conditions, update, options, callback) // executes
A.findOneAndUpdate(conditions, update, options)  // returns Query
A.findOneAndUpdate(conditions, update, callback) // executes
A.findOneAndUpdate(conditions, update)           // returns Query
A.findOneAndUpdate()                             // returns Query

Note:

All top level update keys which are not atomic operation names are treated as set operations:

Example:

var query = { name: 'borne' };
Model.findOneAndUpdate(query, { name: 'jason borne' }, options, callback)

// is sent as
Model.findOneAndUpdate(query, { $set: { name: 'jason borne' }}, options, callback)

This helps prevent accidentally overwriting your document with { name: 'jason borne' }.

Note:

Values are cast to their appropriate types when using the findAndModify helpers.
However, the below are not executed by default.

  • defaults. Use the setDefaultsOnInsert option to override.
  • setters. Use the runSettersOnQuery option to override.

findAndModify helpers support limited validation. You can
enable these by setting the runValidators options,
respectively.

If you need full-fledged validation, use the traditional approach of first
retrieving the document.

Model.findById(id, function (err, doc) {
  if (err) ..
  doc.name = 'jason borne';
  doc.save(callback);
});

Model.geoNear(GeoJSON, options, [callback])

geoNear support for Mongoose

Parameters:

  • GeoJSON <Object, Array> point or legacy coordinate pair [x,y] to search near
  • options <Object> for the query
  • [callback] <Function> optional callback for the query

Returns:

Options:

  • lean {Boolean} return the raw object
  • All options supported by the driver are also supported

Example:

// Legacy point
Model.geoNear([1,3], { maxDistance : 5, spherical : true }, function(err, results, stats) {
   console.log(results);
});

// geoJson
var point = { type : "Point", coordinates : [9,9] };
Model.geoNear(point, { maxDistance : 5, spherical : true }, function(err, results, stats) {
   console.log(results);
});

Model.geoSearch(conditions, options, [callback])

Implements $geoSearch functionality for Mongoose

Parameters:

  • conditions <Object> an object that specifies the match condition (required)
  • options <Object> for the geoSearch, some (near, maxDistance) are required
  • [callback] <Function> optional callback

Returns:

Example:

var options = { near: [10, 10], maxDistance: 5 };
Locations.geoSearch({ type : "house" }, options, function(err, res) {
  console.log(res);
});

Options:

  • near {Array} x,y point to search for
  • maxDistance {Number} the maximum distance from the point near that a result can be
  • limit {Number} The maximum number of results to return
  • lean {Boolean} return the raw object instead of the Mongoose Model

Model.hydrate(obj)

Shortcut for creating a new Document from existing raw data, pre-saved in the DB.
The document returned has no paths marked as modified initially.

Parameters:

Returns:

Example:

// hydrate previous data into a Mongoose document
var mongooseCandy = Candy.hydrate({ _id: '54108337212ffb6d459f854c', type: 'jelly bean' });

Model.insertMany(doc(s), [options], [callback])

Shortcut for validating an array of documents and inserting them into
MongoDB if they're all valid. This function is faster than .create()
because it only sends one operation to the server, rather than one for each
document.

Parameters:

  • doc(s) <Array, Object, *>
  • [options] <Object> see the <a href="http://mongodb.github.io/node-mongodb-native/2.2/api/Collection.html#insertMany">mongodb driver options</a>
  • [callback] <Function> callback

Returns:

This function does not trigger save middleware.

Example:

var arr = [{ name: 'Star Wars' }, { name: 'The Empire Strikes Back' }];
Movies.insertMany(arr, function(error, docs) {});

Model.mapReduce(o, [callback])

Executes a mapReduce command.

Parameters:

  • o <Object> an object specifying map-reduce options
  • [callback] <Function> optional callback

Returns:

o is an object specifying all mapReduce options as well as the map and reduce functions. All options are delegated to the driver implementation. See node-mongodb-native mapReduce() documentation for more detail about options.

Example:

var o = {};
o.map = function () { emit(this.name, 1) }
o.reduce = function (k, vals) { return vals.length }
User.mapReduce(o, function (err, results) {
  console.log(results)
})

Other options:

  • query {Object} query filter object.
  • sort {Object} sort input objects using this key
  • limit {Number} max number of documents
  • keeptemp {Boolean, default:false} keep temporary data
  • finalize {Function} finalize function
  • scope {Object} scope variables exposed to map/reduce/finalize during execution
  • jsMode {Boolean, default:false} it is possible to make the execution stay in JS. Provided in MongoDB > 2.0.X
  • verbose {Boolean, default:false} provide statistics on job execution time.
  • readPreference {String}
  • out* {Object, default: {inline:1}} sets the output target for the map reduce job.

* out options:

  • {inline:1} the results are returned in an array
  • {replace: 'collectionName'} add the results to collectionName: the results replace the collection
  • {reduce: 'collectionName'} add the results to collectionName: if dups are detected, uses the reducer / finalize functions
  • {merge: 'collectionName'} add the results to collectionName: if dups exist the new docs overwrite the old

If options.out is set to replace, merge, or reduce, a Model instance is returned that can be used for further querying. Queries run against this model are all executed with the lean option; meaning only the js object is returned and no Mongoose magic is applied (getters, setters, etc).

Example:

var o = {};
o.map = function () { emit(this.name, 1) }
o.reduce = function (k, vals) { return vals.length }
o.out = { replace: 'createdCollectionNameForResults' }
o.verbose = true;

User.mapReduce(o, function (err, model, stats) {
  console.log('map reduce took %d ms', stats.processtime)
  model.find().where('value').gt(10).exec(function (err, docs) {
    console.log(docs);
  });
})

// `mapReduce()` returns a promise. However, ES6 promises can only
// resolve to exactly one value,
o.resolveToObject = true;
var promise = User.mapReduce(o);
promise.then(function (res) {
  var model = res.model;
  var stats = res.stats;
  console.log('map reduce took %d ms', stats.processtime)
  return model.find().where('value').gt(10).exec();
}).then(function (docs) {
   console.log(docs);
}).then(null, handleError).end()

Model.populate(docs, options, [callback(err,doc)])

Populates document references.

Parameters:

  • docs <Document, Array> Either a single document or array of documents to populate.
  • options <Object> A hash of key/val (path, options) used for population.
  • [callback(err,doc)] <Function> Optional callback, executed upon completion. Receives <code>err</code> and the <code>doc(s)</code>.

Returns:

Available options:

  • path: space delimited path(s) to populate
  • select: optional fields to select
  • match: optional query conditions to match
  • model: optional name of the model to use for population
  • options: optional query options like sort, limit, etc

Examples:

// populates a single object
User.findById(id, function (err, user) {
  var opts = [
      { path: 'company', match: { x: 1 }, select: 'name' }
    , { path: 'notes', options: { limit: 10 }, model: 'override' }
  ]

  User.populate(user, opts, function (err, user) {
    console.log(user);
  });
});

// populates an array of objects
User.find(match, function (err, users) {
  var opts = [{ path: 'company', match: { x: 1 }, select: 'name' }]

  var promise = User.populate(users, opts);
  promise.then(console.log).end();
})

// imagine a Weapon model exists with two saved documents:
//   { _id: 389, name: 'whip' }
//   { _id: 8921, name: 'boomerang' }
// and this schema:
// new Schema({
//   name: String,
//   weapon: { type: ObjectId, ref: 'Weapon' }
// });

var user = { name: 'Indiana Jones', weapon: 389 }
Weapon.populate(user, { path: 'weapon', model: 'Weapon' }, function (err, user) {
  console.log(user.weapon.name) // whip
})

// populate many plain objects
var users = [{ name: 'Indiana Jones', weapon: 389 }]
users.push({ name: 'Batman', weapon: 8921 })
Weapon.populate(users, { path: 'weapon' }, function (err, users) {
  users.forEach(function (user) {
    console.log('%s uses a %s', users.name, user.weapon.name)
    // Indiana Jones uses a whip
    // Batman uses a boomerang
  });
});
// Note that we didn't need to specify the Weapon model because
// it is in the schema's ref

Model.remove(conditions, [callback])

Removes the first document that matches conditions from the collection.
To remove all documents that match conditions, set the justOne option
to false.

Parameters:

Returns:

Example:

Character.remove({ name: 'Eddard Stark' }, function (err) {});

Note:

This method sends a remove command directly to MongoDB, no Mongoose documents are involved. Because no Mongoose documents are involved, no middleware (hooks) are executed.

Model.replaceOne(conditions, doc, [options], [callback])

Same as update(), except MongoDB replace the existing document with the
given document (no atomic operators like $set).

Parameters:

Returns:

Model.translateAliases(raw)

Translate any aliases fields/conditions so the final query or document object is pure

Parameters:

  • raw <Object> fields/conditions that may contain aliased keys

Returns:

  • <Object> the translated 'pure' fields/conditions

Example:

Character
  .find(Character.translateAliases({
    '名': 'Eddard Stark' // Alias for 'name'
  })
  .exec(function(err, characters) {})

Note:

Only translate arguments of object type anything else is returned raw

Model.update(conditions, doc, [options], [callback])

Updates one document in the database without returning it.

Parameters:

Returns:

Examples:

MyModel.update({ age: { $gt: 18 } }, { oldEnough: true }, fn);
MyModel.update({ name: 'Tobi' }, { ferret: true }, { multi: true }, function (err, raw) {
  if (err) return handleError(err);
  console.log('The raw response from Mongo was ', raw);
});

Valid options:

  • safe (boolean) safe mode (defaults to value set in schema (true))
  • upsert (boolean) whether to create the doc if it doesn't match (false)
  • multi (boolean) whether multiple documents should be updated (false)
  • runValidators: if true, runs update validators on this command. Update validators validate the update operation against the model's schema.
  • setDefaultsOnInsert: if this and upsert are true, mongoose will apply the defaults specified in the model's schema if a new document is created. This option only works on MongoDB >= 2.4 because it relies on MongoDB's $setOnInsert operator.
  • strict (boolean) overrides the strict option for this update
  • overwrite (boolean) disables update-only mode, allowing you to overwrite the doc (false)

All update values are cast to their appropriate SchemaTypes before being sent.

The callback function receives (err, rawResponse).

  • err is the error if any occurred
  • rawResponse is the full response from Mongo

Note:

All top level keys which are not atomic operation names are treated as set operations:

Example:

var query = { name: 'borne' };
Model.update(query, { name: 'jason borne' }, options, callback)

// is sent as
Model.update(query, { $set: { name: 'jason borne' }}, options, callback)
// if overwrite option is false. If overwrite is true, sent without the $set wrapper.

This helps prevent accidentally overwriting all documents in your collection with { name: 'jason borne' }.

Note:

Be careful to not use an existing model instance for the update clause (this won't work and can cause weird behavior like infinite loops). Also, ensure that the update clause does not have an _id property, which causes Mongo to return a "Mod on _id not allowed" error.

Note:

To update documents without waiting for a response from MongoDB, do not pass a callback, then call exec on the returned Query:

Comment.update({ _id: id }, { $set: { text: 'changed' }}).exec();

Note:

Although values are casted to their appropriate types when using update, the following are not applied:

  • defaults
  • setters
  • validators
  • middleware

If you need those features, use the traditional approach of first retrieving the document.

Model.findOne({ name: 'borne' }, function (err, doc) {
  if (err) ..
  doc.name = 'jason borne';
  doc.save(callback);
})

Model.updateMany(conditions, doc, [options], [callback])

Same as update(), except MongoDB will update all documents that match
criteria (as opposed to just the first one) regardless of the value of
the multi option.

Parameters:

Returns:

Note updateMany will not fire update middleware. Use pre('updateMany')
and post('updateMany') instead.

Model.updateOne(conditions, doc, [options], [callback])

Same as update(), except MongoDB will update only the first document that
matches criteria regardless of the value of the multi option.

Parameters:

Returns:

Model.where(path, [val])

Creates a Query, applies the passed conditions, and returns the Query.

Parameters:

Returns:

For example, instead of writing:

User.find({age: {$gte: 21, $lte: 65}}, callback);

we can instead write:

User.where('age').gte(21).lte(65).exec(callback);

Since the Query class also supports where you can continue chaining

User
.where('age').gte(21).lte(65)
.where('name', /^b/i)
... etc

Model#$where

Additional properties to attach to the query when calling save() and
isNew is false.

Model#base

Base Mongoose instance the model uses.

Model#baseModelName

If this is a discriminator model, baseModelName is the name of
the base model.

Model#collection

Collection the model uses.

Model#db

Connection the model uses.

Model#discriminators

Registered discriminators for this model.

Model#modelName

The name of the model

Model#schema

Schema the model uses.

promise.js

Promise#addBack(listener)

Adds a single function as a listener to both err and complete.

Parameters:

Returns:

It will be executed with traditional node.js argument position when the promise is resolved.

promise.addBack(function (err, args...) {
  if (err) return handleError(err);
  console.log('success');
})

Alias of mpromise#onResolve.

Deprecated. Use onResolve instead.

Promise#addCallback(listener)

Adds a listener to the complete (success) event.

Parameters:

Returns:

Alias of mpromise#onFulfill.

Deprecated. Use onFulfill instead.

Promise#addErrback(listener)

Adds a listener to the err (rejected) event.

Parameters:

Returns:

Alias of mpromise#onReject.

Deprecated. Use onReject instead.

Promise#catch(onReject)

ES6-style .catch() shorthand

Parameters:

Returns:

Promise#end()

Signifies that this promise was the last in a chain of then()s: if a handler passed to the call to then which produced this promise throws, the exception will go uncaught.

Example:

var p = new Promise;
p.then(function(){ throw new Error('shucks') });
setTimeout(function () {
  p.fulfill();
  // error was caught and swallowed by the promise returned from
  // p.then(). we either have to always register handlers on
  // the returned promises or we can do the following...
}, 10);

// this time we use .end() which prevents catching thrown errors
var p = new Promise;
var p2 = p.then(function(){ throw new Error('shucks') }).end(); // &lt;--
setTimeout(function () {
  p.fulfill(); // throws "shucks"
}, 10);

Promise#error(err)

Rejects this promise with err.

Parameters:

Returns:

If the promise has already been fulfilled or rejected, not action is taken.

Differs from #reject by first casting err to an Error if it is not instanceof Error.

Promise#on(event, listener)

Adds listener to the event.

Parameters:

Returns:

If event is either the success or failure event and the event has already been emitted, thelistener is called immediately and passed the results of the original emitted event.

Promise(fn)

Promise constructor.

Parameters:

  • fn <Function> a function which will be called when the promise is resolved that accepts fn(err, ...){} as signature

Inherits:

Events:

  • err: Emits when the promise is rejected

  • complete: Emits when the promise is fulfilled

Promises are returned from executed queries. Example:

var query = Candy.find({ bar: true });
var promise = query.exec();

DEPRECATED. Mongoose 5.0 will use native promises by default (or bluebird,
if native promises are not present) but still
support plugging in your own ES6-compatible promises library. Mongoose 5.0
will not support mpromise.

Promise#reject(reason)

Rejects this promise with reason.

Parameters:

Returns:

If the promise has already been fulfilled or rejected, not action is taken.

Promise#resolve([err], [val])

Resolves this promise to a rejected state if err is passed or a fulfilled state if no err is passed.

Parameters:

  • [err] <Error> error or null
  • [val] <Object> value to fulfill the promise with

If the promise has already been fulfilled or rejected, not action is taken.

err will be cast to an Error if not already instanceof Error.

NOTE: overrides mpromise#resolve to provide error casting.

Promise#then(onFulFill, onReject)

Creates a new promise and returns it. If onFulfill or onReject are passed, they are added as SUCCESS/ERROR callbacks to this promise after the nextTick.

Parameters:

Returns:

Conforms to promises/A+ specification.

Example:

var promise = Meetups.find({ tags: 'javascript' }).select('_id').exec();
promise.then(function (meetups) {
  var ids = meetups.map(function (m) {
    return m._id;
  });
  return People.find({ meetups: { $in: ids } }).exec();
}).then(function (people) {
  if (people.length &lt; 10000) {
    throw new Error('Too few people!!!');
  } else {
    throw new Error('Still need more people!!!');
  }
}).then(null, function (err) {
  assert.ok(err instanceof Error);
});

Promise.complete(args)

Fulfills this promise with passed arguments.

Parameters:

  • args <T>

Alias of mpromise#fulfill.

Deprecated. Use fulfill instead.

Promise.ES6(resolver)

ES6-style promise constructor wrapper around mpromise.

Parameters:

Returns:

Promise.fulfill(args)

Fulfills this promise with passed arguments.

Parameters:

  • args <T>

query.js

Query#$where(js)

Specifies a javascript function or expression to pass to MongoDBs query system.

Parameters:

Returns:

See:

Example

query.$where('this.comments.length === 10 || this.name.length === 5')

// or

query.$where(function () {
  return this.comments.length === 10 || this.name.length === 5;
})

NOTE:

Only use $where when you have a condition that cannot be met using other MongoDB operators like $lt.
Be sure to read about all of its caveats before using.

Query#all([path], val)

Specifies an $all query condition.

Parameters:

See:

When called with one argument, the most recent path passed to where() is used.

Query#and(array)

Specifies arguments for a $and condition.

Parameters:

  • array <Array> array of conditions

Returns:

See:

Example

query.and([{ color: 'green' }, { status: 'ok' }])

Query#batchSize(val)

Specifies the batchSize option.

Parameters:

See:

Example

query.batchSize(100)

Note

Cannot be used with distinct()

Query#box(val, Upper)

Specifies a $box condition

Parameters:

Returns:

Example

var lowerLeft = [40.73083, -73.99756]
var upperRight= [40.741404,  -73.988135]

query.where('loc').within().box(lowerLeft, upperRight)
query.box({ ll : lowerLeft, ur : upperRight })

Query#cast(model, [obj])

Casts this query to the schema of model

Parameters:

Returns:

Note

If obj is present, it is cast instead of this query.

Query#catch([reject])

Executes the query returning a Promise which will be
resolved with either the doc(s) or rejected with the error.
Like .then(), but only takes a rejection handler.

Parameters:

Returns:

Query#center()

DEPRECATED Alias for circle

Deprecated. Use circle instead.

Query#centerSphere([path], val)

DEPRECATED Specifies a $centerSphere condition

Parameters:

Returns:

Deprecated. Use circle instead.

Example

var area = { center: [50, 50], radius: 10 };
query.where('loc').within().centerSphere(area);

Query#circle([path], area)

Specifies a $center or $centerSphere condition.

Parameters:

Returns:

Example

var area = { center: [50, 50], radius: 10, unique: true }
query.where('loc').within().circle(area)
// alternatively
query.circle('loc', area);

// spherical calculations
var area = { center: [50, 50], radius: 10, unique: true, spherical: true }
query.where('loc').within().circle(area)
// alternatively
query.circle('loc', area);

New in 3.7.0

Query#collation(value)

Adds a collation to this op (MongoDB 3.4 and up)

Parameters:

Returns:

See:

Query#comment(val)

Specifies the comment option.

Parameters:

See:

Example

query.comment('login query')

Note

Cannot be used with distinct()

Query#count([criteria], [callback])

Specifying this query as a count query.

Parameters:

  • [criteria] <Object> mongodb selector
  • [callback] <Function> optional params are (error, count)

Returns:

See:

Passing a callback executes the query.

Example:

var countQuery = model.where({ 'color': 'black' }).count();

query.count({ color: 'black' }).count(callback)

query.count({ color: 'black' }, callback)

query.where('color', 'black').count(function (err, count) {
  if (err) return handleError(err);
  console.log('there are %d kittens', count);
})

Query#cursor([options])

Returns a wrapper around a mongodb driver cursor.
A QueryCursor exposes a Streams3-compatible
interface, as well as a .next() function.

Parameters:

Returns:

The .cursor() function triggers pre find hooks, but not post find hooks.

Example

// There are 2 ways to use a cursor. First, as a stream:
Thing.
  find({ name: /^hello/ }).
  cursor().
  on('data', function(doc) { console.log(doc); }).
  on('end', function() { console.log('Done!'); });

// Or you can use `.next()` to manually get the next doc in the stream.
// `.next()` returns a promise, so you can use promises or callbacks.
var cursor = Thing.find({ name: /^hello/ }).cursor();
cursor.next(function(error, doc) {
  console.log(doc);
});

// Because `.next()` returns a promise, you can use co
// to easily iterate through all documents without loading them
// all into memory.
co(function*() {
  const cursor = Thing.find({ name: /^hello/ }).cursor();
  for (let doc = yield cursor.next(); doc != null; doc = yield cursor.next()) {
    console.log(doc);
  }
});

Valid options

  • transform: optional function which accepts a mongoose document. The return value of the function will be emitted on data and returned by .next().

Query#deleteMany([filter], [callback])

Declare and/or execute this query as a deleteMany() operation. Works like
remove, except it deletes every document that matches criteria in the
collection, regardless of the value of justOne.

Parameters:

  • [filter] <Object, Query> mongodb selector
  • [callback] <Function> optional params are (error, writeOpResult)

Returns:

Example

Character.deleteMany({ name: /Stark/, age: { $gte: 18 } }, callback)
Character.deleteMany({ name: /Stark/, age: { $gte: 18 } }).then(next)

Query#deleteOne([filter], [callback])

Declare and/or execute this query as a deleteOne() operation. Works like
remove, except it deletes at most one document regardless of the justOne
option.

Parameters:

  • [filter] <Object, Query> mongodb selector
  • [callback] <Function> optional params are (error, writeOpResult)

Returns:

Example

Character.deleteOne({ name: 'Eddard Stark' }, callback)
Character.deleteOne({ name: 'Eddard Stark' }).then(next)

Query#distinct([field], [criteria], [callback])

Declares or executes a distict() operation.

Parameters:

Returns:

See:

Passing a callback executes the query.

Example

distinct(field, conditions, callback)
distinct(field, conditions)
distinct(field, callback)
distinct(field)
distinct(callback)
distinct()

Query#elemMatch(path, criteria)

Specifies an $elemMatch condition

Parameters:

Returns:

See:

Example

query.elemMatch('comment', { author: 'autobot', votes: {$gte: 5}})

query.where('comment').elemMatch({ author: 'autobot', votes: {$gte: 5}})

query.elemMatch('comment', function (elem) {
  elem.where('author').equals('autobot');
  elem.where('votes').gte(5);
})

query.where('comment').elemMatch(function (elem) {
  elem.where({ author: 'autobot' });
  elem.where('votes').gte(5);
})

Query#equals(val)

Specifies the complementary comparison value for paths specified with where()

Parameters:

Returns:

Example

User.where('age').equals(49);

// is the same as

User.where('age', 49);

Query#exec([operation], [callback])

Executes the query

Parameters:

Returns:

Examples:

var promise = query.exec();
var promise = query.exec('update');

query.exec(callback);
query.exec('find', callback);

Query#exists([path], val)

Specifies an $exists condition

Parameters:

Returns:

See:

Example

// { name: { $exists: true }}
Thing.where('name').exists()
Thing.where('name').exists(true)
Thing.find().exists('name')

// { name: { $exists: false }}
Thing.where('name').exists(false);
Thing.find().exists('name', false);

Query#find([criteria], [callback])

Finds documents.

Parameters:

Returns:

When no callback is passed, the query is not executed. When the query is executed, the result will be an array of documents.

Example

query.find({ name: 'Los Pollos Hermanos' }).find(callback)

Query#findOne([criteria], [projection], [callback])

Declares the query a findOne operation. When executed, the first found document is passed to the callback.

Parameters:

  • [criteria] <Object, Query> mongodb selector
  • [projection] <Object> optional fields to return
  • [callback] <Function> optional params are (error, document)

Returns:

Passing a callback executes the query. The result of the query is a single document.

  • Note: conditions is optional, and if conditions is null or undefined, mongoose will send an empty findOne command to MongoDB, which will return an arbitrary document. If you're querying by _id, use Model.findById() instead.

Example

var query  = Kitten.where({ color: 'white' });
query.findOne(function (err, kitten) {
  if (err) return handleError(err);
  if (kitten) {
    // doc may be null if no document matched
  }
});

Query#findOneAndRemove([conditions], [options], [options.passRawResult], [options.strict], [callback])

Issues a mongodb findAndModify remove command.

Parameters:

Returns:

See:

Finds a matching document, removes it, passing the found document (if any) to the callback. Executes immediately if callback is passed.

Available options

Callback Signature

function(error, doc, result) {
  // error: any errors that occurred
  // doc: the document before updates are applied if `new: false`, or after updates if `new = true`
  // result: [raw result from the MongoDB driver](http://mongodb.github.io/node-mongodb-native/2.0/api/Collection.html#findAndModify)
}

Examples

A.where().findOneAndRemove(conditions, options, callback) // executes
A.where().findOneAndRemove(conditions, options)  // return Query
A.where().findOneAndRemove(conditions, callback) // executes
A.where().findOneAndRemove(conditions) // returns Query
A.where().findOneAndRemove(callback)   // executes
A.where().findOneAndRemove()           // returns Query

Query#findOneAndUpdate([query], [doc], [options], [options.passRawResult], [options.strict], [callback])

Issues a mongodb findAndModify update command.

Parameters:

Returns:

Finds a matching document, updates it according to the update arg, passing any options, and returns the found document (if any) to the callback. The query executes immediately if callback is passed.

Available options

  • new: bool - if true, return the modified document rather than the original. defaults to false (changed in 4.0)
  • upsert: bool - creates the object if it doesn't exist. defaults to false.
  • fields: {Object|String} - Field selection. Equivalent to .select(fields).findOneAndUpdate()
  • sort: if multiple docs are found by the conditions, sets the sort order to choose which doc to update
  • maxTimeMS: puts a time limit on the query - requires mongodb >= 2.6.0
  • runValidators: if true, runs update validators on this command. Update validators validate the update operation against the model's schema.
  • setDefaultsOnInsert: if this and upsert are true, mongoose will apply the defaults specified in the model's schema if a new document is created. This option only works on MongoDB >= 2.4 because it relies on MongoDB's $setOnInsert operator.
  • passRawResult: if true, passes the raw result from the MongoDB driver as the third callback parameter
  • context (string) if set to 'query' and runValidators is on, this will refer to the query in custom validator functions that update validation runs. Does nothing if runValidators is false.
  • runSettersOnQuery: bool - if true, run all setters defined on the associated model's schema for all fields defined in the query and the update.

Callback Signature

function(error, doc) {
  // error: any errors that occurred
  // doc: the document before updates are applied if `new: false`, or after updates if `new = true`
}

Examples

query.findOneAndUpdate(conditions, update, options, callback) // executes
query.findOneAndUpdate(conditions, update, options)  // returns Query
query.findOneAndUpdate(conditions, update, callback) // executes
query.findOneAndUpdate(conditions, update)           // returns Query
query.findOneAndUpdate(update, callback)             // returns Query
query.findOneAndUpdate(update)                       // returns Query
query.findOneAndUpdate(callback)                     // executes
query.findOneAndUpdate()                             // returns Query

Query#geometry(object)

Specifies a $geometry condition

Parameters:

  • object <Object> Must contain a type property which is a String and a coordinates property which is an Array. See the examples.

Returns:

Example

var polyA = [[[ 10, 20 ], [ 10, 40 ], [ 30, 40 ], [ 30, 20 ]]]
query.where('loc').within().geometry({ type: 'Polygon', coordinates: polyA })

// or
var polyB = [[ 0, 0 ], [ 1, 1 ]]
query.where('loc').within().geometry({ type: 'LineString', coordinates: polyB })

// or
var polyC = [ 0, 0 ]
query.where('loc').within().geometry({ type: 'Point', coordinates: polyC })

// or
query.where('loc').intersects().geometry({ type: 'Point', coordinates: polyC })

The argument is assigned to the most recent path passed to where().

NOTE:

geometry() must come after either intersects() or within().

The object argument must contain type and coordinates properties.
- type {String}
- coordinates {Array}

Query#getQuery()

Returns the current query conditions as a JSON object.

Returns:

  • <Object> current query conditions

Example:

var query = new Query();
query.find({ a: 1 }).where('b').gt(2);
query.getQuery(); // { a: 1, b: { $gt: 2 } }

Query#getUpdate()

Returns the current update operations as a JSON object.

Returns:

  • <Object> current update operations

Example:

var query = new Query();
query.update({}, { $set: { a: 5 } });
query.getUpdate(); // { $set: { a: 5 } }

Query#gt([path], val)

Specifies a $gt query condition.

Parameters:

See:

When called with one argument, the most recent path passed to where() is used.

Example

Thing.find().where('age').gt(21)

// or
Thing.find().gt('age', 21)

Query#gte([path], val)

Specifies a $gte query condition.

Parameters:

See:

When called with one argument, the most recent path passed to where() is used.

Query#hint(val)

Sets query hints.

Parameters:

Returns:

See:

Example

query.hint({ indexA: 1, indexB: -1})

Note

Cannot be used with distinct()

Query#in([path], val)

Specifies an $in query condition.

Parameters:

See:

When called with one argument, the most recent path passed to where() is used.

Query#intersects([arg])

Declares an intersects query for geometry().

Parameters:

Returns:

Example

query.where('path').intersects().geometry({
    type: 'LineString'
  , coordinates: [[180.0, 11.0], [180, 9.0]]
})

query.where('path').intersects({
    type: 'LineString'
  , coordinates: [[180.0, 11.0], [180, 9.0]]
})

NOTE:

MUST be used after where().

NOTE:

In Mongoose 3.7, intersects changed from a getter to a function. If you need the old syntax, use this.

Query#lean(bool)

Sets the lean option.

Parameters:

Returns:

Documents returned from queries with the lean option enabled are plain javascript objects, not MongooseDocuments. They have no save method, getters/setters or other Mongoose magic applied.

Example:

new Query().lean() // true
new Query().lean(true)
new Query().lean(false)

Model.find().lean().exec(function (err, docs) {
  docs[0] instanceof mongoose.Document // false
});

This is a great option in high-performance read-only scenarios, especially when combined with stream.

Query#limit(val)

Specifies the maximum number of documents the query will return.

Parameters:

Example

query.limit(20)

Note

Cannot be used with distinct()

Query#lt([path], val)

Specifies a $lt query condition.

Parameters:

See:

When called with one argument, the most recent path passed to where() is used.

Query#lte([path], val)

Specifies a $lte query condition.

Parameters:

See:

When called with one argument, the most recent path passed to where() is used.

Query#maxDistance([path], val)

Specifies a $maxDistance query condition.

Parameters:

When called with one argument, the most recent path passed to where() is used.

Query#maxscan()

DEPRECATED Alias of maxScan

See:

Query#maxScan(val)

Specifies the maxScan option.

Parameters:

See:

Example

query.maxScan(100)

Note

Cannot be used with distinct()

Query#merge(source)

Merges another Query or conditions object into this one.

Parameters:

Returns:

When a Query is passed, conditions, field selection and options are merged.

Query#merge(source)

Merges another Query or conditions object into this one.

Parameters:

Returns:

When a Query is passed, conditions, field selection and options are merged.

New in 3.7.0

Query#mod([path], val)

Specifies a $mod condition

Parameters:

Returns:

See:

Query#mongooseOptions(options)

Getter/setter around the current mongoose-specific options for this query
(populate, lean, etc.)

Parameters:

  • options <Object> if specified, overwrites the current options

Query#ne([path], val)

Specifies a $ne query condition.

Parameters:

See:

When called with one argument, the most recent path passed to where() is used.

Query#near([path], val)

Specifies a $near or $nearSphere condition

Parameters:

Returns:

These operators return documents sorted by distance.

Example

query.where('loc').near({ center: [10, 10] });
query.where('loc').near({ center: [10, 10], maxDistance: 5 });
query.where('loc').near({ center: [10, 10], maxDistance: 5, spherical: true });
query.near('loc', { center: [10, 10], maxDistance: 5 });

Query#nearSphere()

DEPRECATED Specifies a $nearSphere condition

Example

query.where('loc').nearSphere({ center: [10, 10], maxDistance: 5 });

Deprecated. Use query.near() instead with the spherical option set to true.

Example

query.where('loc').near({ center: [10, 10], spherical: true });

Query#nin([path], val)

Specifies an $nin query condition.

Parameters:

See:

When called with one argument, the most recent path passed to where() is used.

Query#nor(array)

Specifies arguments for a $nor condition.

Parameters:

  • array <Array> array of conditions

Returns:

See:

Example

query.nor([{ color: 'green' }, { status: 'ok' }])

Query#or(array)

Specifies arguments for an $or condition.

Parameters:

  • array <Array> array of conditions

Returns:

See:

Example

query.or([{ color: 'red' }, { status: 'emergency' }])

Query#polygon([path], [coordinatePairs...])

Specifies a $polygon condition

Parameters:

Returns:

Example

query.where('loc').within().polygon([10,20], [13, 25], [7,15])
query.polygon('loc', [10,20], [13, 25], [7,15])

Query#populate(path, [select], [model], [match], [options])

Specifies paths which should be populated with other documents.

Parameters:

  • path <Object, String> either the path to populate or an object specifying all parameters
  • [select] <Object, String> Field selection for the population query
  • [model] <Model> The model you wish to use for population. If not specified, populate will look up the model by the name in the Schema's ref field.
  • [match] <Object> Conditions for the population query
  • [options] <Object> Options for the population query (sort, etc)

Returns:

Example:

Kitten.findOne().populate('owner').exec(function (err, kitten) {
  console.log(kitten.owner.name) // Max
})

Kitten.find().populate({
    path: 'owner'
  , select: 'name'
  , match: { color: 'black' }
  , options: { sort: { name: -1 }}
}).exec(function (err, kittens) {
  console.log(kittens[0].owner.name) // Zoopa
})

// alternatively
Kitten.find().populate('owner', 'name', null, {sort: { name: -1 }}).exec(function (err, kittens) {
  console.log(kittens[0].owner.name) // Zoopa
})

Paths are populated after the query executes and a response is received. A separate query is then executed for each path specified for population. After a response for each query has also been returned, the results are passed to the callback.

Query#read(pref, [tags])

Determines the MongoDB nodes from which to read.

Parameters:

  • pref <String> one of the listed preference options or aliases
  • [tags] <Array> optional tags for this query

Returns:

Preferences:

primary - (default) Read from primary only. Operations will produce an error if primary is unavailable. Cannot be combined with tags.
secondary            Read from secondary if available, otherwise error.
primaryPreferred     Read from primary if available, otherwise a secondary.
secondaryPreferred   Read from a secondary if available, otherwise read from the primary.
nearest              All operations read from among the nearest candidates, but unlike other modes, this option will include both the primary and all secondaries in the random selection.

Aliases

p   primary
pp  primaryPreferred
s   secondary
sp  secondaryPreferred
n   nearest

Example:

new Query().read('primary')
new Query().read('p')  // same as primary

new Query().read('primaryPreferred')
new Query().read('pp') // same as primaryPreferred

new Query().read('secondary')
new Query().read('s')  // same as secondary

new Query().read('secondaryPreferred')
new Query().read('sp') // same as secondaryPreferred

new Query().read('nearest')
new Query().read('n')  // same as nearest

// read from secondaries with matching tags
new Query().read('s', [{ dc:'sf', s: 1 },{ dc:'ma', s: 2 }])

Read more about how to use read preferrences here and here.

Query#regex([path], val)

Specifies a $regex query condition.

Parameters:

See:

When called with one argument, the most recent path passed to where() is used.

Query#remove([filter], [callback])

Declare and/or execute this query as a remove() operation.

Parameters:

  • [filter] <Object, Query> mongodb selector
  • [callback] <Function> optional params are (error, writeOpResult)

Returns:

Example

Model.remove({ artist: 'Anne Murray' }, callback)

Note

The operation is only executed when a callback is passed. To force execution without a callback, you must first call remove() and then execute it by using the exec() method.

// not executed
var query = Model.find().remove({ name: 'Anne Murray' })

// executed
query.remove({ name: 'Anne Murray' }, callback)
query.remove({ name: 'Anne Murray' }).remove(callback)

// executed without a callback
query.exec()

// summary
query.remove(conds, fn); // executes
query.remove(conds)
query.remove(fn) // executes
query.remove()

Query#replaceOne([criteria], [doc], [options], [callback])

Declare and/or execute this query as a replaceOne() operation. Same as
update(), except MongoDB will replace the existing document and will
not accept any atomic operators ($set, etc.)

Parameters:

  • [criteria] <Object>
  • [doc] <Object> the update command
  • [options] <Object>
  • [callback] <Function> optional params are (error, writeOpResult)

Returns:

Note replaceOne will not fire update middleware. Use pre('replaceOne')
and post('replaceOne') instead.

Query#select(arg)

Specifies which document fields to include or exclude (also known as the query "projection")

Parameters:

Returns:

See:

When using string syntax, prefixing a path with - will flag that path as excluded. When a path does not have the - prefix, it is included. Lastly, if a path is prefixed with +, it forces inclusion of the path, which is useful for paths excluded at the schema level.

A projection must be either inclusive or exclusive. In other words, you must
either list the fields to include (which excludes all others), or list the fields
to exclude (which implies all other fields are included). The _id field is the only exception because MongoDB includes it by default.

Example

// include a and b, exclude other fields
query.select('a b');

// exclude c and d, include other fields
query.select('-c -d');

// or you may use object notation, useful when
// you have keys already prefixed with a "-"
query.select({ a: 1, b: 1 });
query.select({ c: 0, d: 0 });

// force inclusion of field excluded at schema level
query.select('+path')

Query#selected()

Determines if field selection has been made.

Returns:

Query#selectedExclusively()

Determines if exclusive field selection has been made.

Returns:

query.selectedExclusively() // false
query.select('-name')
query.selectedExclusively() // true
query.selectedInclusively() // false

Query#selectedInclusively()

Determines if inclusive field selection has been made.

Returns:

query.selectedInclusively() // false
query.select('name')
query.selectedInclusively() // true

Query#setOptions(options)

Sets query options.

Parameters:

Options:

* denotes a query helper method is also available
** query helper method to set readPreference is read()

Query#size([path], val)

Specifies a $size query condition.

Parameters:

See:

When called with one argument, the most recent path passed to where() is used.

Example

MyModel.where('tags').size(0).exec(function (err, docs) {
  if (err) return handleError(err);

  assert(Array.isArray(docs));
  console.log('documents with 0 tags', docs);
})

Query#skip(val)

Specifies the number of documents to skip.

Parameters:

Example

query.skip(100).limit(20)

Note

Cannot be used with distinct()

Query#slaveOk(v)

DEPRECATED Sets the slaveOk option.

Parameters:

Returns:

Deprecated in MongoDB 2.2 in favor of read preferences.

Example:

query.slaveOk() // true
query.slaveOk(true)
query.slaveOk(false)

Query#slice([path], val)

Specifies a $slice projection for an array.

Parameters:

  • [path] <String>
  • val <Number> number/range of elements to slice

Returns:

Example

query.slice('comments', 5)
query.slice('comments', -5)
query.slice('comments', [10, 5])
query.where('comments').slice(5)
query.where('comments').slice([-10, 5])

Query#snapshot()

Specifies this query as a snapshot query.

Returns:

See:

Example

query.snapshot() // true
query.snapshot(true)
query.snapshot(false)

Note

Cannot be used with distinct()

Query#sort(arg)

Sets the sort order

Parameters:

Returns:

If an object is passed, values allowed are asc, desc, ascending, descending, 1, and -1.

If a string is passed, it must be a space delimited list of path names. The
sort order of each path is ascending unless the path name is prefixed with -
which will be treated as descending.

Example

// sort by "field" ascending and "test" descending
query.sort({ field: 'asc', test: -1 });

// equivalent
query.sort('field -test');

Note

Cannot be used with distinct()

Query#stream([options])

Returns a Node.js 0.8 style read stream interface.

Parameters:

Returns:

Example

// follows the nodejs 0.8 stream api
Thing.find({ name: /^hello/ }).stream().pipe(res)

// manual streaming
var stream = Thing.find({ name: /^hello/ }).stream();

stream.on('data', function (doc) {
  // do something with the mongoose document
}).on('error', function (err) {
  // handle the error
}).on('close', function () {
  // the stream is closed
});

Valid options

  • transform: optional function which accepts a mongoose document. The return value of the function will be emitted on data.

Example

// JSON.stringify all documents before emitting
var stream = Thing.find().stream({ transform: JSON.stringify });
stream.pipe(writeStream);

Query#tailable(bool, [opts], [opts.numberOfRetries], [opts.tailableRetryInterval])

Sets the tailable option (for use with capped collections).

Parameters:

  • bool <Boolean> defaults to true
  • [opts] <Object> options to set
  • [opts.numberOfRetries] <Number> if cursor is exhausted, retry this many times before giving up
  • [opts.tailableRetryInterval] <Number> if cursor is exhausted, wait this many milliseconds before retrying

See:

Example

query.tailable() // true
query.tailable(true)
query.tailable(false)

Note

Cannot be used with distinct()

Query#then([resolve], [reject])

Executes the query returning a Promise which will be
resolved with either the doc(s) or rejected with the error.

Parameters:

Returns:

Query#toConstructor()

Converts this query to a customized, reusable query constructor with all arguments and options retained.

Returns:

  • <Query> subclass-of-Query

Example

// Create a query for adventure movies and read from the primary
// node in the replica-set unless it is down, in which case we'll
// read from a secondary node.
var query = Movie.find({ tags: 'adventure' }).read('primaryPreferred');

// create a custom Query constructor based off these settings
var Adventure = query.toConstructor();

// Adventure is now a subclass of mongoose.Query and works the same way but with the
// default query parameters and options set.
Adventure().exec(callback)

// further narrow down our query results while still using the previous settings
Adventure().where({ name: /^Life/ }).exec(callback);

// since Adventure is a stand-alone constructor we can also add our own
// helper methods and getters without impacting global queries
Adventure.prototype.startsWith = function (prefix) {
  this.where({ name: new RegExp('^' + prefix) })
  return this;
}
Object.defineProperty(Adventure.prototype, 'highlyRated', {
  get: function () {
    this.where({ rating: { $gt: 4.5 }});
    return this;
  }
})
Adventure().highlyRated.startsWith('Life').exec(callback)

New in 3.7.3

Query#update([criteria], [doc], [options], [callback])

Declare and/or execute this query as an update() operation.

Parameters:

  • [criteria] <Object>
  • [doc] <Object> the update command
  • [options] <Object>
  • [callback] <Function> optional, params are (error, writeOpResult)

Returns:

All paths passed that are not $atomic operations will become $set ops.

Example

Model.where({ _id: id }).update({ title: 'words' })

// becomes

Model.where({ _id: id }).update({ $set: { title: 'words' }})

Valid options:

  • safe (boolean) safe mode (defaults to value set in schema (true))
  • upsert (boolean) whether to create the doc if it doesn't match (false)
  • multi (boolean) whether multiple documents should be updated (false)
  • runValidators: if true, runs update validators on this command. Update validators validate the update operation against the model's schema.
  • setDefaultsOnInsert: if this and upsert are true, mongoose will apply the defaults specified in the model's schema if a new document is created. This option only works on MongoDB >= 2.4 because it relies on MongoDB's $setOnInsert operator.
  • strict (boolean) overrides the strict option for this update
  • overwrite (boolean) disables update-only mode, allowing you to overwrite the doc (false)
  • context (string) if set to 'query' and runValidators is on, this will refer to the query in custom validator functions that update validation runs. Does nothing if runValidators is false.

Note

Passing an empty object {} as the doc will result in a no-op unless the overwrite option is passed. Without the overwrite option set, the update operation will be ignored and the callback executed without sending the command to MongoDB so as to prevent accidently overwritting documents in the collection.

Note

The operation is only executed when a callback is passed. To force execution without a callback, we must first call update() and then execute it by using the exec() method.

var q = Model.where({ _id: id });
q.update({ $set: { name: 'bob' }}).update(); // not executed

q.update({ $set: { name: 'bob' }}).exec(); // executed

// keys that are not $atomic ops become $set.
// this executes the same command as the previous example.
q.update({ name: 'bob' }).exec();

// overwriting with empty docs
var q = Model.where({ _id: id }).setOptions({ overwrite: true })
q.update({ }, callback); // executes

// multi update with overwrite to empty doc
var q = Model.where({ _id: id });
q.setOptions({ multi: true, overwrite: true })
q.update({ });
q.update(callback); // executed

// multi updates
Model.where()
     .update({ name: /^match/ }, { $set: { arr: [] }}, { multi: true }, callback)

// more multi updates
Model.where()
     .setOptions({ multi: true })
     .update({ $set: { arr: [] }}, callback)

// single update by default
Model.where({ email: 'address@example.com' })
     .update({ $inc: { counter: 1 }}, callback)

API summary

update(criteria, doc, options, cb) // executes
update(criteria, doc, options)
update(criteria, doc, cb) // executes
update(criteria, doc)
update(doc, cb) // executes
update(doc)
update(cb) // executes
update(true) // executes
update()

Query#updateMany([criteria], [doc], [options], [callback])

Declare and/or execute this query as an updateMany() operation. Same as
update(), except MongoDB will update all documents that match
criteria (as opposed to just the first one) regardless of the value of
the multi option.

Parameters:

  • [criteria] <Object>
  • [doc] <Object> the update command
  • [options] <Object>
  • [callback] <Function> optional params are (error, writeOpResult)

Returns:

Note updateMany will not fire update middleware. Use pre('updateMany')
and post('updateMany') instead.

Query#updateOne([criteria], [doc], [options], [callback])

Declare and/or execute this query as an updateOne() operation. Same as
update(), except MongoDB will update only the first document that
matches criteria regardless of the value of the multi option.

Parameters:

  • [criteria] <Object>
  • [doc] <Object> the update command
  • [options] <Object>
  • [callback] <Function> params are (error, writeOpResult)

Returns:

Note updateOne will not fire update middleware. Use pre('updateOne')
and post('updateOne') instead.

Query#where([path], [val])

Specifies a path for use with chaining.

Parameters:

Returns:

Example

// instead of writing:
User.find({age: {$gte: 21, $lte: 65}}, callback);

// we can instead write:
User.where('age').gte(21).lte(65);

// passing query conditions is permitted
User.find().where({ name: 'vonderful' })

// chaining
User
.where('age').gte(21).lte(65)
.where('name', /^vonderful/i)
.where('friends').slice(10)
.exec(callback)

Query#within()

Defines a $within or $geoWithin argument for geo-spatial queries.

Returns:

Example

query.where(path).within().box()
query.where(path).within().circle()
query.where(path).within().geometry()

query.where('loc').within({ center: [50,50], radius: 10, unique: true, spherical: true });
query.where('loc').within({ box: [[40.73, -73.9], [40.7, -73.988]] });
query.where('loc').within({ polygon: [[],[],[],[]] });

query.where('loc').within([], [], []) // polygon
query.where('loc').within([], []) // box
query.where('loc').within({ type: 'LineString', coordinates: [...] }); // geometry

MUST be used after where().

NOTE:

As of Mongoose 3.7, $geoWithin is always used for queries. To change this behavior, see Query.use$geoWithin.

NOTE:

In Mongoose 3.7, within changed from a getter to a function. If you need the old syntax, use this.

Query#use$geoWithin

Flag to opt out of using $geoWithin.

mongoose.Query.use$geoWithin = false;

MongoDB 2.4 deprecated the use of $within, replacing it with $geoWithin. Mongoose uses $geoWithin by default (which is 100% backward compatible with $within). If you are running an older version of MongoDB, set this flag to false so your within() queries continue to work.

querystream.js

QueryStream#destroy([err])

Destroys the stream, closing the underlying cursor, which emits the close event. No more events will be emitted after the close event.

Parameters:

QueryStream#pause()

Pauses this stream.

QueryStream#pipe()

Pipes this query stream into another stream. This method is inherited from NodeJS Streams.

See:

Example:

query.stream().pipe(writeStream [, options])

QueryStream(query, [options])

Provides a Node.js 0.8 style ReadStream interface for Queries.

Parameters:

Inherits:

Events:

  • data: emits a single Mongoose document

  • error: emits when an error occurs during streaming. This will emit before the close event.

  • close: emits when the stream reaches the end of the cursor or an error occurs, or the stream is manually destroyed. After this event, no more events are emitted.

var stream = Model.find().stream();

stream.on('data', function (doc) {
  // do something with the mongoose document
}).on('error', function (err) {
  // handle the error
}).on('close', function () {
  // the stream is closed
});

The stream interface allows us to simply "plug-in" to other Node.js 0.8 style write streams.

Model.where('created').gte(twoWeeksAgo).stream().pipe(writeStream);

Valid options

  • transform: optional function which accepts a mongoose document. The return value of the function will be emitted on data.

Example

// JSON.stringify all documents before emitting
var stream = Thing.find().stream({ transform: JSON.stringify });
stream.pipe(writeStream);

NOTE: plugging into an HTTP response will *not* work out of the box. Those streams expect only strings or buffers to be emitted, so first formatting our documents as strings/buffers is necessary.

NOTE: these streams are Node.js 0.8 style read streams which differ from Node.js 0.10 style. Node.js 0.10 streams are not well tested yet and are not guaranteed to work.

QueryStream#resume()

Resumes this stream.

QueryStream#paused

Flag stating whether or not this stream is paused.

QueryStream#readable

Flag stating whether or not this stream is readable.

schema/array.js

SchemaArray#checkRequired(value)

Check if the given value satisfies a required validator. The given value
must be not null nor undefined, and have a positive length.

Parameters:

Returns:

SchemaArray(key, cast, options)

Array SchemaType constructor

Parameters:

Inherits:

SchemaArray.schemaName

This schema type's name, to defend against minifiers that mangle
function names.

schema/boolean.js

SchemaBoolean#checkRequired(value)

Check if the given value satisfies a required validator. For a boolean
to satisfy a required validator, it must be strictly equal to true or to
false.

Parameters:

Returns:

SchemaBoolean(path, options)

Boolean SchemaType constructor.

Parameters:

Inherits:

SchemaBoolean.schemaName

This schema type's name, to defend against minifiers that mangle
function names.

schema/buffer.js

SchemaBuffer#checkRequired(value, doc)

Check if the given value satisfies a required validator. To satisfy a
required validator, a buffer must not be null or undefined and have
non-zero length.

Parameters:

Returns:

SchemaBuffer(key, options)

Buffer SchemaType constructor

Parameters:

Inherits:

SchemaBuffer.schemaName

This schema type's name, to defend against minifiers that mangle
function names.

schema/date.js

SchemaDate#checkRequired(value, doc)

Check if the given value satisfies a required validator. To satisfy
a required validator, the given value must be an instance of Date.

Parameters:

Returns:

SchemaDate#expires(when)

Declares a TTL index (rounded to the nearest second) for Date types only.

Parameters:

Returns:

This sets the expireAfterSeconds index option available in MongoDB >= 2.1.2.
This index type is only compatible with Date types.

Example:

// expire in 24 hours
new Schema({ createdAt: { type: Date, expires: 60*60*24 }});

expires utilizes the ms module from guille allowing us to use a friendlier syntax:

Example:

// expire in 24 hours
new Schema({ createdAt: { type: Date, expires: '24h' }});

// expire in 1.5 hours
new Schema({ createdAt: { type: Date, expires: '1.5h' }});

// expire in 7 days
var schema = new Schema({ createdAt: Date });
schema.path('createdAt').expires('7d');

SchemaDate#max(maximum, [message])

Sets a maximum date validator.

Parameters:

  • maximum <Date> date
  • [message] <String> optional custom error message

Returns:

Example:

var s = new Schema({ d: { type: Date, max: Date('2014-01-01') })
var M = db.model('M', s)
var m = new M({ d: Date('2014-12-08') })
m.save(function (err) {
  console.error(err) // validator error
  m.d = Date('2013-12-31');
  m.save() // success
})

// custom error messages
// We can also use the special {MAX} token which will be replaced with the invalid value
var max = [Date('2014-01-01'), 'The value of path `{PATH}` ({VALUE}) exceeds the limit ({MAX}).'];
var schema = new Schema({ d: { type: Date, max: max })
var M = mongoose.model('M', schema);
var s= new M({ d: Date('2014-12-08') });
s.validate(function (err) {
  console.log(String(err)) // ValidationError: The value of path `d` (2014-12-08) exceeds the limit (2014-01-01).
})

SchemaDate#min(value, [message])

Sets a minimum date validator.

Parameters:

  • value <Date> minimum date
  • [message] <String> optional custom error message

Returns:

Example:

var s = new Schema({ d: { type: Date, min: Date('1970-01-01') })
var M = db.model('M', s)
var m = new M({ d: Date('1969-12-31') })
m.save(function (err) {
  console.error(err) // validator error
  m.d = Date('2014-12-08');
  m.save() // success
})

// custom error messages
// We can also use the special {MIN} token which will be replaced with the invalid value
var min = [Date('1970-01-01'), 'The value of path `{PATH}` ({VALUE}) is beneath the limit ({MIN}).'];
var schema = new Schema({ d: { type: Date, min: min })
var M = mongoose.model('M', schema);
var s= new M({ d: Date('1969-12-31') });
s.validate(function (err) {
  console.log(String(err)) // ValidationError: The value of path `d` (1969-12-31) is before the limit (1970-01-01).
})

SchemaDate(key, options)

Date SchemaType constructor.

Parameters:

Inherits:

SchemaDate.schemaName

This schema type's name, to defend against minifiers that mangle
function names.

schema/decimal128.js

Decimal128#checkRequired(value, doc)

Check if the given value satisfies a required validator.

Parameters:

Returns:

Decimal128(key, options)

Decimal128 SchemaType constructor.

Parameters:

Inherits:

Decimal128.schemaName

This schema type's name, to defend against minifiers that mangle
function names.

schema/documentarray.js

DocumentArray(key, schema, options)

SubdocsArray SchemaType constructor

Parameters:

Inherits:

DocumentArray.schemaName

This schema type's name, to defend against minifiers that mangle
function names.

schema/embedded.js

Embedded(schema, key, options)

Sub-schema schematype constructor

Parameters:

Inherits:

schema/mixed.js

Mixed(path, options)

Mixed SchemaType constructor.

Parameters:

Inherits:

Mixed.schemaName

This schema type's name, to defend against minifiers that mangle
function names.

schema/number.js

SchemaNumber#checkRequired(value, doc)

Check if the given value satisfies a required validator.

Parameters:

Returns:

SchemaNumber#max(maximum, [message])

Sets a maximum number validator.

Parameters:

  • maximum <Number> number
  • [message] <String> optional custom error message

Returns:

Example:

var s = new Schema({ n: { type: Number, max: 10 })
var M = db.model('M', s)
var m = new M({ n: 11 })
m.save(function (err) {
  console.error(err) // validator error
  m.n = 10;
  m.save() // success
})

// custom error messages
// We can also use the special {MAX} token which will be replaced with the invalid value
var max = [10, 'The value of path `{PATH}` ({VALUE}) exceeds the limit ({MAX}).'];
var schema = new Schema({ n: { type: Number, max: max })
var M = mongoose.model('Measurement', schema);
var s= new M({ n: 4 });
s.validate(function (err) {
  console.log(String(err)) // ValidationError: The value of path `n` (4) exceeds the limit (10).
})

SchemaNumber#min(value, [message])

Sets a minimum number validator.

Parameters:

  • value <Number> minimum number
  • [message] <String> optional custom error message

Returns:

Example:

var s = new Schema({ n: { type: Number, min: 10 })
var M = db.model('M', s)
var m = new M({ n: 9 })
m.save(function (err) {
  console.error(err) // validator error
  m.n = 10;
  m.save() // success
})

// custom error messages
// We can also use the special {MIN} token which will be replaced with the invalid value
var min = [10, 'The value of path `{PATH}` ({VALUE}) is beneath the limit ({MIN}).'];
var schema = new Schema({ n: { type: Number, min: min })
var M = mongoose.model('Measurement', schema);
var s= new M({ n: 4 });
s.validate(function (err) {
  console.log(String(err)) // ValidationError: The value of path `n` (4) is beneath the limit (10).
})

SchemaNumber(key, options)

Number SchemaType constructor.

Parameters:

Inherits:

SchemaNumber.schemaName

This schema type's name, to defend against minifiers that mangle
function names.

schema/objectid.js

ObjectId#auto(turnOn)

Adds an auto-generated ObjectId default if turnOn is true.

Parameters:

  • turnOn <Boolean> auto generated ObjectId defaults

Returns:

ObjectId#checkRequired(value, doc)

Check if the given value satisfies a required validator.

Parameters:

Returns:

ObjectId(key, options)

ObjectId SchemaType constructor.

Parameters:

Inherits:

ObjectId.schemaName

This schema type's name, to defend against minifiers that mangle
function names.

schema/string.js

SchemaString#checkRequired(value, doc)

Check if the given value satisfies a required validator.

Parameters:

Returns:

SchemaString#enum([args...])

Adds an enum validator

Parameters:

Returns:

Example:

var states = ['opening', 'open', 'closing', 'closed']
var s = new Schema({ state: { type: String, enum: states }})
var M = db.model('M', s)
var m = new M({ state: 'invalid' })
m.save(function (err) {
  console.error(String(err)) // ValidationError: `invalid` is not a valid enum value for path `state`.
  m.state = 'open'
  m.save(callback) // success
})

// or with custom error messages
var enum = {
  values: ['opening', 'open', 'closing', 'closed'],
  message: 'enum validator failed for path `{PATH}` with value `{VALUE}`'
}
var s = new Schema({ state: { type: String, enum: enum })
var M = db.model('M', s)
var m = new M({ state: 'invalid' })
m.save(function (err) {
  console.error(String(err)) // ValidationError: enum validator failed for path `state` with value `invalid`
  m.state = 'open'
  m.save(callback) // success
})

SchemaString#lowercase()

Adds a lowercase setter.

Returns:

Example:

var s = new Schema({ email: { type: String, lowercase: true }})
var M = db.model('M', s);
var m = new M({ email: 'SomeEmail@example.COM' });
console.log(m.email) // someemail@example.com

SchemaString#match(regExp, [message])

Sets a regexp validator.

Parameters:

  • regExp <RegExp> regular expression to test against
  • [message] <String> optional custom error message

Returns:

Any value that does not pass regExp.test(val) will fail validation.

Example:

var s = new Schema({ name: { type: String, match: /^a/ }})
var M = db.model('M', s)
var m = new M({ name: 'I am invalid' })
m.validate(function (err) {
  console.error(String(err)) // "ValidationError: Path `name` is invalid (I am invalid)."
  m.name = 'apples'
  m.validate(function (err) {
    assert.ok(err) // success
  })
})

// using a custom error message
var match = [ /\.html$/, "That file doesn't end in .html ({VALUE})" ];
var s = new Schema({ file: { type: String, match: match }})
var M = db.model('M', s);
var m = new M({ file: 'invalid' });
m.validate(function (err) {
  console.log(String(err)) // "ValidationError: That file doesn't end in .html (invalid)"
})

Empty strings, undefined, and null values always pass the match validator. If you require these values, enable the required validator also.

var s = new Schema({ name: { type: String, match: /^a/, required: true }})

SchemaString#maxlength(value, [message])

Sets a maximum length validator.

Parameters:

  • value <Number> maximum string length
  • [message] <String> optional custom error message

Returns:

Example:

var schema = new Schema({ postalCode: { type: String, maxlength: 9 })
var Address = db.model('Address', schema)
var address = new Address({ postalCode: '9512512345' })
address.save(function (err) {
  console.error(err) // validator error
  address.postalCode = '95125';
  address.save() // success
})

// custom error messages
// We can also use the special {MAXLENGTH} token which will be replaced with the maximum allowed length
var maxlength = [9, 'The value of path `{PATH}` (`{VALUE}`) exceeds the maximum allowed length ({MAXLENGTH}).'];
var schema = new Schema({ postalCode: { type: String, maxlength: maxlength })
var Address = mongoose.model('Address', schema);
var address = new Address({ postalCode: '9512512345' });
address.validate(function (err) {
  console.log(String(err)) // ValidationError: The value of path `postalCode` (`9512512345`) exceeds the maximum allowed length (9).
})

SchemaString#minlength(value, [message])

Sets a minimum length validator.

Parameters:

  • value <Number> minimum string length
  • [message] <String> optional custom error message

Returns:

Example:

var schema = new Schema({ postalCode: { type: String, minlength: 5 })
var Address = db.model('Address', schema)
var address = new Address({ postalCode: '9512' })
address.save(function (err) {
  console.error(err) // validator error
  address.postalCode = '95125';
  address.save() // success
})

// custom error messages
// We can also use the special {MINLENGTH} token which will be replaced with the minimum allowed length
var minlength = [5, 'The value of path `{PATH}` (`{VALUE}`) is shorter than the minimum allowed length ({MINLENGTH}).'];
var schema = new Schema({ postalCode: { type: String, minlength: minlength })
var Address = mongoose.model('Address', schema);
var address = new Address({ postalCode: '9512' });
address.validate(function (err) {
  console.log(String(err)) // ValidationError: The value of path `postalCode` (`9512`) is shorter than the minimum length (5).
})

SchemaString(key, options)

String SchemaType constructor.

Parameters:

Inherits:

SchemaString#trim()

Adds a trim setter.

Returns:

The string value will be trimmed when set.

Example:

var s = new Schema({ name: { type: String, trim: true }})
var M = db.model('M', s)
var string = ' some name '
console.log(string.length) // 11
var m = new M({ name: string })
console.log(m.name.length) // 9

SchemaString#uppercase()

Adds an uppercase setter.

Returns:

Example:

var s = new Schema({ caps: { type: String, uppercase: true }})
var M = db.model('M', s);
var m = new M({ caps: 'an example' });
console.log(m.caps) // AN EXAMPLE

SchemaString.schemaName

This schema type's name, to defend against minifiers that mangle
function names.

schema.js

Schema#add(obj, prefix)

Adds key path / schema type pairs to this schema.

Parameters:

Example:

var ToySchema = new Schema;
ToySchema.add({ name: 'string', color: 'string', price: 'number' });

Schema#clone()

Returns a deep copy of the schema

Returns:

Schema#eachPath(fn)

Iterates the schemas paths similar to Array#forEach.

Parameters:

Returns:

The callback is passed the pathname and schemaType as arguments on each iteration.

Schema#get(key)

Gets a schema option.

Parameters:

Schema#index(fields, [options], [options.expires=null])

Defines an index (most likely compound) for this schema.

Parameters:

Example

schema.index({ first: 1, last: -1 })

Schema#indexes()

Compiles indexes from fields and schema-level indexes

Schema#loadClass(model)

Loads an ES6 class into a schema. Maps setters + getters, static methods, and instance methods to schema virtuals, statics, and methods.

Parameters:

Schema#method(method, [fn])

Adds an instance method to documents constructed from Models compiled from this schema.

Parameters:

Example

var schema = kittySchema = new Schema(..);

schema.method('meow', function () {
  console.log('meeeeeoooooooooooow');
})

var Kitty = mongoose.model('Kitty', schema);

var fizz = new Kitty;
fizz.meow(); // meeeeeooooooooooooow

If a hash of name/fn pairs is passed as the only argument, each name/fn pair will be added as methods.

schema.method({
    purr: function () {}
  , scratch: function () {}
});

// later
fizz.purr();
fizz.scratch();

Schema#path(path, constructor)

Gets/sets schema paths.

Parameters:

Sets a path (if arity 2)
Gets a path (if arity 1)

Example

schema.path('name') // returns a SchemaType
schema.path('name', Number) // changes the schemaType of `name` to Number

Schema#pathType(path)

Returns the pathType of path for this schema.

Parameters:

Returns:

Given a path, returns whether it is a real, virtual, nested, or ad-hoc/undefined path.

Schema#plugin(plugin, [opts])

Registers a plugin for this schema.

Parameters:

See:

Schema#post(method, fn)

Defines a post hook for the document

Parameters:

var schema = new Schema(..);
schema.post('save', function (doc) {
  console.log('this fired after a document was saved');
});

shema.post('find', function(docs) {
  console.log('this fired after you run a find query');
});

var Model = mongoose.model('Model', schema);

var m = new Model(..);
m.save(function(err) {
  console.log('this fires after the `post` hook');
});

m.find(function(err, docs) {
  console.log('this fires after the post find hook');
});

Schema#pre(method, callback)

Defines a pre hook for the document.

Parameters:

See:

Example

var toySchema = new Schema(..);

toySchema.pre('save', function (next) {
  if (!this.created) this.created = new Date;
  next();
})

toySchema.pre('validate', function (next) {
  if (this.name !== 'Woody') this.name = 'Woody';
  next();
})

Schema#queue(name, args)

Adds a method call to the queue.

Parameters:

  • name <String> name of the document method to call later
  • args <Array> arguments to pass to the method

Schema#remove(path)

Removes the given path (or [paths]).

Parameters:

Schema#requiredPaths(invalidate)

Returns an Array of path strings that are required by this schema.

Parameters:

  • invalidate <Boolean> refresh the cache

Returns:

Schema(definition, [options])

Schema constructor.

Parameters:

Events:

  • init: Emitted after the schema is compiled into a Model.

Example:

var child = new Schema({ name: String });
var schema = new Schema({ name: String, age: Number, children: [child] });
var Tree = mongoose.model('Tree', schema);

// setting schema options
new Schema({ name: String }, { _id: false, autoIndex: false })

Options:

Note:

When nesting schemas, (children in the example above), always declare the child schema first before passing it into its parent.

Schema#set(key, [value])

Sets/gets a schema option.

Parameters:

  • key <String> option name
  • [value] <Object> if not passed, the current option value is returned

See:

Example

schema.set('strict'); // 'true' by default
schema.set('strict', false); // Sets 'strict' to false
schema.set('strict'); // 'false'

Schema#static(name, [fn])

Adds static "class" methods to Models compiled from this schema.

Parameters:

Example

var schema = new Schema(..);
schema.static('findByName', function (name, callback) {
  return this.find({ name: name }, callback);
});

var Drink = mongoose.model('Drink', schema);
Drink.findByName('sanpellegrino', function (err, drinks) {
  //
});

If a hash of name/fn pairs is passed as the only argument, each name/fn pair will be added as statics.

Schema#virtual(name, [options])

Creates a virtual type with the given name.

Parameters:

Returns:

Schema#virtualpath(name)

Returns the virtual type with the given name.

Parameters:

Returns:

Schema.indexTypes()

The allowed index types

Schema.reserved

Reserved document keys.

Keys in this object are names that are rejected in schema declarations b/c they conflict with mongoose functionality. Using these key name will throw an error.

on, emit, _events, db, get, set, init, isNew, errors, schema, options, modelName, collection, _pres, _posts, toObject

NOTE: Use of these terms as method names is permitted, but play at your own risk, as they may be existing mongoose document methods you are stomping on.

var schema = new Schema(..);
 schema.methods.init = function () {} // potentially breaking

Schema.Types

The various built-in Mongoose Schema Types.

Example:

var mongoose = require('mongoose');
var ObjectId = mongoose.Schema.Types.ObjectId;

Types:

Using this exposed access to the Mixed SchemaType, we can use them in our schema.

var Mixed = mongoose.Schema.Types.Mixed;
new mongoose.Schema({ _user: Mixed })

Schema#obj

The original object passed to the schema constructor

Example:

var schema = new Schema({ a: String }).add({ b: String });
schema.obj; // { a: String }

schematype.js

SchemaType#default(val)

Sets a default value for this SchemaType.

Parameters:

Returns:

Example:

var schema = new Schema({ n: { type: Number, default: 10 })
var M = db.model('M', schema)
var m = new M;
console.log(m.n) // 10

Defaults can be either functions which return the value to use as the default or the literal value itself. Either way, the value will be cast based on its schema type before being set during document creation.

Example:

// values are cast:
var schema = new Schema({ aNumber: { type: Number, default: 4.815162342 }})
var M = db.model('M', schema)
var m = new M;
console.log(m.aNumber) // 4.815162342

// default unique objects for Mixed types:
var schema = new Schema({ mixed: Schema.Types.Mixed });
schema.path('mixed').default(function () {
  return {};
});

// if we don't use a function to return object literals for Mixed defaults,
// each document will receive a reference to the same object literal creating
// a "shared" object instance:
var schema = new Schema({ mixed: Schema.Types.Mixed });
schema.path('mixed').default({});
var M = db.model('M', schema);
var m1 = new M;
m1.mixed.added = 1;
console.log(m1.mixed); // { added: 1 }
var m2 = new M;
console.log(m2.mixed); // { added: 1 }

SchemaType#get(fn)

Adds a getter to this schematype.

Parameters:

Returns:

Example:

function dob (val) {
  if (!val) return val;
  return (val.getMonth() + 1) + "/" + val.getDate() + "/" + val.getFullYear();
}

// defining within the schema
var s = new Schema({ born: { type: Date, get: dob })

// or by retreiving its SchemaType
var s = new Schema({ born: Date })
s.path('born').get(dob)

Getters allow you to transform the representation of the data as it travels from the raw mongodb document to the value that you see.

Suppose you are storing credit card numbers and you want to hide everything except the last 4 digits to the mongoose user. You can do so by defining a getter in the following way:

function obfuscate (cc) {
  return '****-****-****-' + cc.slice(cc.length-4, cc.length);
}

var AccountSchema = new Schema({
  creditCardNumber: { type: String, get: obfuscate }
});

var Account = db.model('Account', AccountSchema);

Account.findById(id, function (err, found) {
  console.log(found.creditCardNumber); // '****-****-****-1234'
});

Getters are also passed a second argument, the schematype on which the getter was defined. This allows for tailored behavior based on options passed in the schema.

function inspector (val, schematype) {
  if (schematype.options.required) {
    return schematype.path + ' is required';
  } else {
    return schematype.path + ' is not';
  }
}

var VirusSchema = new Schema({
  name: { type: String, required: true, get: inspector },
  taxonomy: { type: String, get: inspector }
})

var Virus = db.model('Virus', VirusSchema);

Virus.findById(id, function (err, virus) {
  console.log(virus.name);     // name is required
  console.log(virus.taxonomy); // taxonomy is not
})

SchemaType#index(options)

Declares the index options for this schematype.

Parameters:

Returns:

Example:

var s = new Schema({ name: { type: String, index: true })
var s = new Schema({ loc: { type: [Number], index: 'hashed' })
var s = new Schema({ loc: { type: [Number], index: '2d', sparse: true })
var s = new Schema({ loc: { type: [Number], index: { type: '2dsphere', sparse: true }})
var s = new Schema({ date: { type: Date, index: { unique: true, expires: '1d' }})
Schema.path('my.path').index(true);
Schema.path('my.date').index({ expires: 60 });
Schema.path('my.path').index({ unique: true, sparse: true });

NOTE:

Indexes are created in the background by default. Specify background: false to override.

Direction doesn't matter for single key indexes

SchemaType#required(required, [options.isRequired], [options.ErrorConstructor], [message])

Adds a required validator to this SchemaType. The validator gets added
to the front of this SchemaType's validators array using unshift().

Parameters:

  • required <Boolean, Function, Object> enable/disable the validator, or function that returns required boolean, or options object
  • [options.isRequired] <Boolean, Function> enable/disable the validator, or function that returns required boolean
  • [options.ErrorConstructor] <Function> custom error constructor. The constructor receives 1 parameter, an object containing the validator properties.
  • [message] <String> optional custom error message

Returns:

Example:

var s = new Schema({ born: { type: Date, required: true })

// or with custom error message

var s = new Schema({ born: { type: Date, required: '{PATH} is required!' })

// or with a function

var s = new Schema({
  userId: ObjectId,
  username: {
    type: String,
    required: function() { return this.userId != null; }
  }
})

// or with a function and a custom message
var s = new Schema({
  userId: ObjectId,
  username: {
    type: String,
    required: [
      function() { return this.userId != null; },
      'username is required if id is specified'
    ]
  }
})

// or through the path API

Schema.path('name').required(true);

// with custom error messaging

Schema.path('name').required(true, 'grrr :( ');

// or make a path conditionally required based on a function
var isOver18 = function() { return this.age &gt;= 18; };
Schema.path('voterRegistrationId').required(isOver18);

The required validator uses the SchemaType's checkRequired function to
determine whether a given value satisfies the required validator. By default,
a value satisfies the required validator if val != null (that is, if
the value is not null nor undefined). However, most built-in mongoose schema
types override the default checkRequired function:

SchemaType(path, [options], [instance])

SchemaType constructor

Parameters:

SchemaType#select(val)

Sets default select() behavior for this path.

Parameters:

Returns:

Set to true if this path should always be included in the results, false if it should be excluded by default. This setting can be overridden at the query level.

Example:

T = db.model('T', new Schema({ x: { type: String, select: true }}));
T.find(..); // field x will always be selected ..
// .. unless overridden;
T.find().select('-x').exec(callback);

SchemaType#set(fn)

Adds a setter to this schematype.

Parameters:

Returns:

Example:

function capitalize (val) {
  if (typeof val !== 'string') val = '';
  return val.charAt(0).toUpperCase() + val.substring(1);
}

// defining within the schema
var s = new Schema({ name: { type: String, set: capitalize }})

// or by retreiving its SchemaType
var s = new Schema({ name: String })
s.path('name').set(capitalize)

Setters allow you to transform the data before it gets to the raw mongodb document and is set as a value on an actual key.

Suppose you are implementing user registration for a website. Users provide an email and password, which gets saved to mongodb. The email is a string that you will want to normalize to lower case, in order to avoid one email having more than one account -- e.g., otherwise, avenue@q.com can be registered for 2 accounts via avenue@q.com and AvEnUe@Q.CoM.

You can set up email lower case normalization easily via a Mongoose setter.

function toLower (v) {
  return v.toLowerCase();
}

var UserSchema = new Schema({
  email: { type: String, set: toLower }
})

var User = db.model('User', UserSchema)

var user = new User({email: 'AVENUE@Q.COM'})
console.log(user.email); // 'avenue@q.com'

// or
var user = new User
user.email = 'Avenue@Q.com'
console.log(user.email) // 'avenue@q.com'

As you can see above, setters allow you to transform the data before it gets to the raw mongodb document and is set as a value on an actual key.

NOTE: we could have also just used the built-in lowercase: true SchemaType option instead of defining our own function.

new Schema({ email: { type: String, lowercase: true }})

Setters are also passed a second argument, the schematype on which the setter was defined. This allows for tailored behavior based on options passed in the schema.

function inspector (val, schematype) {
  if (schematype.options.required) {
    return schematype.path + ' is required';
  } else {
    return val;
  }
}

var VirusSchema = new Schema({
  name: { type: String, required: true, set: inspector },
  taxonomy: { type: String, set: inspector }
})

var Virus = db.model('Virus', VirusSchema);
var v = new Virus({ name: 'Parvoviridae', taxonomy: 'Parvovirinae' });

console.log(v.name);     // name is required
console.log(v.taxonomy); // Parvovirinae

SchemaType#sparse(bool)

Declares a sparse index.

Parameters:

Returns:

Example:

var s = new Schema({ name: { type: String, sparse: true })
Schema.path('name').index({ sparse: true });

SchemaType#text(bool)

Declares a full text index.

Parameters:

Returns:

Example:

var s = new Schema({name : {type: String, text : true })
 Schema.path('name').index({text : true});

SchemaType#unique(bool)

Declares an unique index.

Parameters:

Returns:

Example:

var s = new Schema({ name: { type: String, unique: true }});
Schema.path('name').index({ unique: true });

NOTE: violating the constraint returns an E11000 error from MongoDB when saving, not a Mongoose validation error.

SchemaType#validate(obj, [errorMsg], [type])

Adds validator(s) for this document path.

Parameters:

Returns:

Validators always receive the value to validate as their first argument and must return Boolean. Returning false means validation failed.

The error message argument is optional. If not passed, the default generic error message template will be used.

Examples:

// make sure every value is equal to "something"
function validator (val) {
  return val == 'something';
}
new Schema({ name: { type: String, validate: validator }});

// with a custom error message

var custom = [validator, 'Uh oh, {PATH} does not equal "something".']
new Schema({ name: { type: String, validate: custom }});

// adding many validators at a time

var many = [
    { validator: validator, msg: 'uh oh' }
  , { validator: anotherValidator, msg: 'failed' }
]
new Schema({ name: { type: String, validate: many }});

// or utilizing SchemaType methods directly:

var schema = new Schema({ name: 'string' });
schema.path('name').validate(validator, 'validation of `{PATH}` failed with value `{VALUE}`');

Error message templates:

From the examples above, you may have noticed that error messages support basic templating. There are a few other template keywords besides {PATH} and {VALUE} too. To find out more, details are available here

Asynchronous validation:

Passing a validator function that receives two arguments tells mongoose that the validator is an asynchronous validator. The first argument passed to the validator function is the value being validated. The second argument is a callback function that must called when you finish validating the value and passed either true or false to communicate either success or failure respectively.

schema.path('name').validate({
  isAsync: true,
  validator: function (value, respond) {
    doStuff(value, function () {
      ...
      respond(false); // validation failed
    });
  },
  message: 'Custom error message!' // Optional
});

// Can also return a promise
schema.path('name').validate({
  validator: function (value) {
    return new Promise(function (resolve, reject) {
      resolve(false); // validation failed
    });
  }
});

You might use asynchronous validators to retreive other documents from the database to validate against or to meet other I/O bound validation needs.

Validation occurs pre('save') or whenever you manually execute document#validate.

If validation fails during pre('save') and no callback was passed to receive the error, an error event will be emitted on your Models associated db connection, passing the validation error object along.

var conn = mongoose.createConnection(..);
conn.on('error', handleError);

var Product = conn.model('Product', yourSchema);
var dvd = new Product(..);
dvd.save(); // emits error on the `conn` above

If you desire handling these errors at the Model level, attach an error listener to your Model and the event will instead be emitted there.

// registering an error listener on the Model lets us handle errors more locally
Product.on('error', handleError);
services/cursor/eachAsync.js

module.exports(next, fn, options, [callback])

Execute fn for every document in the cursor. If fn returns a promise,
will wait for the promise to resolve before iterating on to the next one.
Returns a promise that resolves when done.

Parameters:

  • next <Function> the thunk to call to get the next document
  • fn <Function>
  • options <Object>
  • [callback] <Function> executed when all docs have been processed

Returns:

types/array.js

MongooseArray#$shift()

Atomically shifts the array at most one time per document save().

See:

NOTE:

Calling this mulitple times on an array before saving sends the same command as calling it once.
This update is implemented using the MongoDB $pop method which enforces this restriction.

doc.array = [1,2,3];

 var shifted = doc.array.$shift();
 console.log(shifted); // 1
 console.log(doc.array); // [2,3]

 // no affect
 shifted = doc.array.$shift();
 console.log(doc.array); // [2,3]

 doc.save(function (err) {
   if (err) return handleError(err);

   // we saved, now $shift works again
   shifted = doc.array.$shift();
   console.log(shifted ); // 2
   console.log(doc.array); // [3]
 })

MongooseArray#remove()

Alias of pull

MongooseArray.$pop()

Pops the array atomically at most one time per document save().

See:

NOTE:

Calling this mulitple times on an array before saving sends the same command as calling it once.
This update is implemented using the MongoDB $pop method which enforces this restriction.

doc.array = [1,2,3];

 var popped = doc.array.$pop();
 console.log(popped); // 3
 console.log(doc.array); // [1,2]

 // no affect
 popped = doc.array.$pop();
 console.log(doc.array); // [1,2]

 doc.save(function (err) {
   if (err) return handleError(err);

   // we saved, now $pop works again
   popped = doc.array.$pop();
   console.log(popped); // 2
   console.log(doc.array); // [1]
 })

MongooseArray.addToSet([args...])

Adds values to the array if not already present.

Parameters:

  • [args...] <T>

Returns:

  • <Array> the values that were added

Example:

console.log(doc.array) // [2,3,4]
var added = doc.array.addToSet(4,5);
console.log(doc.array) // [2,3,4,5]
console.log(added)     // [5]

MongooseArray.indexOf(obj)

Return the index of obj or -1 if not found.

Parameters:

  • obj <Object> the item to look for

Returns:

MongooseArray.inspect()

Helper for console.log

MongooseArray.nonAtomicPush([args...])

Pushes items to the array non-atomically.

Parameters:

  • [args...] <T>

NOTE:

marks the entire array as modified, which if saved, will store it as a $set operation, potentially overwritting any changes that happen between when you retrieved the object and when you save it.

MongooseArray.pop()

Wraps Array#pop with proper change tracking.

Note:

marks the entire array as modified which will pass the entire thing to $set potentially overwritting any changes that happen between when you retrieved the object and when you save it.

MongooseArray.pull([args...])

Pulls items from the array atomically. Equality is determined by casting
the provided value to an embedded document and comparing using
the Document.equals() function.

Parameters:

  • [args...] <T>

See:

Examples:

doc.array.pull(ObjectId)
doc.array.pull({ _id: 'someId' })
doc.array.pull(36)
doc.array.pull('tag 1', 'tag 2')

To remove a document from a subdocument array we may pass an object with a matching _id.

doc.subdocs.push({ _id: 4815162342 })
doc.subdocs.pull({ _id: 4815162342 }) // removed

Or we may passing the _id directly and let mongoose take care of it.

doc.subdocs.push({ _id: 4815162342 })
doc.subdocs.pull(4815162342); // works

The first pull call will result in a atomic operation on the database, if pull is called repeatedly without saving the document, a $set operation is used on the complete array instead, overwriting possible changes that happened on the database in the meantime.

MongooseArray.push([args...])

Wraps Array#push with proper change tracking.

Parameters:

MongooseArray.set()

Sets the casted val at index i and marks the array modified.

Returns:

Example:

// given documents based on the following
var Doc = mongoose.model('Doc', new Schema({ array: [Number] }));

var doc = new Doc({ array: [2,3,4] })

console.log(doc.array) // [2,3,4]

doc.array.set(1,"5");
console.log(doc.array); // [2,5,4] // properly cast to number
doc.save() // the change is saved

// VS not using array#set
doc.array[1] = "5";
console.log(doc.array); // [2,"5",4] // no casting
doc.save() // change is not saved

MongooseArray.shift()

Wraps Array#shift with proper change tracking.

Example:

doc.array = [2,3];
var res = doc.array.shift();
console.log(res) // 2
console.log(doc.array) // [3]

Note:

marks the entire array as modified, which if saved, will store it as a $set operation, potentially overwritting any changes that happen between when you retrieved the object and when you save it.

MongooseArray.sort()

Wraps Array#sort with proper change tracking.

NOTE:

marks the entire array as modified, which if saved, will store it as a $set operation, potentially overwritting any changes that happen between when you retrieved the object and when you save it.

MongooseArray.splice()

Wraps Array#splice with proper change tracking and casting.

Note:

marks the entire array as modified, which if saved, will store it as a $set operation, potentially overwritting any changes that happen between when you retrieved the object and when you save it.

MongooseArray.toObject(options)

Returns a native js Array.

Parameters:

Returns:

MongooseArray.unshift()

Wraps Array#unshift with proper change tracking.

Note:

marks the entire array as modified, which if saved, will store it as a $set operation, potentially overwritting any changes that happen between when you retrieved the object and when you save it.

types/buffer.js

MongooseBuffer.copy(target)

Copies the buffer.

Parameters:

Returns:

  • <Number> The number of bytes copied.

Note:

Buffer#copy does not mark target as modified so you must copy from a MongooseBuffer for it to work as expected. This is a work around since copy modifies the target, not this.

MongooseBuffer.equals(other)

Determines if this buffer is equals to other buffer

Parameters:

Returns:

MongooseBuffer.subtype(subtype)

Sets the subtype option and marks the buffer modified.

Parameters:

  • subtype <Hex>

SubTypes:

var bson = require('bson')
bson.BSON_BINARY_SUBTYPE_DEFAULT
bson.BSON_BINARY_SUBTYPE_FUNCTION
bson.BSON_BINARY_SUBTYPE_BYTE_ARRAY
bson.BSON_BINARY_SUBTYPE_UUID
bson.BSON_BINARY_SUBTYPE_MD5
bson.BSON_BINARY_SUBTYPE_USER_DEFINED

doc.buffer.subtype(bson.BSON_BINARY_SUBTYPE_UUID);

MongooseBuffer.toObject([subtype])

Converts this buffer to its Binary type representation.

Parameters:

  • [subtype] <Hex>

Returns:

SubTypes:

var bson = require('bson')
bson.BSON_BINARY_SUBTYPE_DEFAULT
bson.BSON_BINARY_SUBTYPE_FUNCTION
bson.BSON_BINARY_SUBTYPE_BYTE_ARRAY
bson.BSON_BINARY_SUBTYPE_UUID
bson.BSON_BINARY_SUBTYPE_MD5
bson.BSON_BINARY_SUBTYPE_USER_DEFINED

doc.buffer.toObject(bson.BSON_BINARY_SUBTYPE_USER_DEFINED);

MongooseBuffer.write()

Writes the buffer.

types/decimal128.js

exports()

ObjectId type constructor

Example

var id = new mongoose.Types.ObjectId;
types/documentarray.js

MongooseDocumentArray.create(obj)

Creates a subdocument casted to this schema.

Parameters:

  • obj <Object> the value to cast to this arrays SubDocument schema

This is the same subdocument constructor used for casting.

MongooseDocumentArray.id(id)

Searches array items for the first document with a matching _id.

Parameters:

Returns:

Example:

var embeddedDoc = m.array.id(some_id);

MongooseDocumentArray.inspect()

Helper for console.log

MongooseDocumentArray.toObject([options])

Returns a native js Array of plain js objects

Parameters:

  • [options] <Object> optional options to pass to each documents <code>toObject</code> method call during conversion

Returns:

NOTE:

Each sub-document is converted to a plain object by calling its #toObject method.

types/embedded.js

EmbeddedDocument#inspect()

Helper for console.log

EmbeddedDocument#invalidate(path, err)

Marks a path as invalid, causing validation to fail.

Parameters:

  • path <String> the field to invalidate
  • err <String, Error> error which states the reason path was invalid

Returns:

EmbeddedDocument#ownerDocument()

Returns the top level document of this sub-document.

Returns:

EmbeddedDocument#parent()

Returns this sub-documents parent document.

EmbeddedDocument#parentArray()

Returns this sub-documents parent array.

EmbeddedDocument#remove([options], [fn])

Removes the subdocument from its parent array.

Parameters:

EmbeddedDocument.markModified(path)

Marks the embedded doc modified.

Parameters:

  • path <String> the path which changed

Example:

var doc = blogpost.comments.id(hexstring);
doc.mixed.type = 'changed';
doc.markModified('mixed.type');

types/objectid.js

ObjectId()

ObjectId type constructor

Example

var id = new mongoose.Types.ObjectId;

types/subdocument.js

Subdocument#ownerDocument()

Returns the top level document of this sub-document.

Returns:

Subdocument#parent()

Returns this sub-documents parent document.

Subdocument#remove([options], [callback])

Null-out this subdoc

Parameters:

  • [options] <Object>
  • [callback] <Function> optional callback for compatibility with Document.prototype.remove
utils.js

exports.pluralization

Pluralization rules.

These rules are applied while processing the argument to toCollectionName.

exports.uncountables

Uncountable words.

These words are applied while processing the argument to toCollectionName.

virtualtype.js

VirtualType#applyGetters(value, scope)

Applies getters to value using optional scope.

Parameters:

Returns:

  • <T> the value after applying all getters

VirtualType#applySetters(value, scope)

Applies setters to value using optional scope.

Parameters:

Returns:

  • <T> the value after applying all setters

VirtualType#get(fn)

Defines a getter.

Parameters:

Returns:

Example:

var virtual = schema.virtual('fullname');
virtual.get(function () {
  return this.name.first + ' ' + this.name.last;
});

VirtualType#set(fn)

Defines a setter.

Parameters:

Returns:

Example:

var virtual = schema.virtual('fullname');
virtual.set(function (v) {
  var parts = v.split(' ');
  this.name.first = parts[0];
  this.name.last = parts[1];
});

VirtualType()

VirtualType constructor

This is what mongoose uses to define virtual attributes via Schema.prototype.virtual.

Example:

var fullname = schema.virtual('fullname');
fullname instanceof mongoose.VirtualType // true

collection.js

Collection(name, conn, opts)

Abstract Collection constructor

Parameters:

  • name <String> name of the collection
  • conn <Connection> A MongooseConnection instance
  • opts <Object> optional collection options

This is the base class that drivers inherit from and implement.

Collection#ensureIndex()

Abstract method that drivers must implement.

Collection#find()

Abstract method that drivers must implement.

Collection#findAndModify()

Abstract method that drivers must implement.

Collection#findOne()

Abstract method that drivers must implement.

Collection#getIndexes()

Abstract method that drivers must implement.

Collection#insert()

Abstract method that drivers must implement.

Collection#mapReduce()

Abstract method that drivers must implement.

Collection#save()

Abstract method that drivers must implement.

Collection#update()

Abstract method that drivers must implement.

Collection#collectionName

The collection name

Collection#conn

The Connection instance

Collection#name

The collection name

© 2010 LearnBoost
Licensed under the MIT License.
http://mongoosejs.com/docs/api.html