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Computational tools

Statistical Functions

Percent Change

Series, DataFrame, and Panel all have a method pct_change to compute the percent change over a given number of periods (using fill_method to fill NA/null values before computing the percent change).

In [1]: ser = pd.Series(np.random.randn(8))

In [2]: ser.pct_change()
Out[2]: 
0         NaN
1   -1.602976
2    4.334938
3   -0.247456
4   -2.067345
5   -1.142903
6   -1.688214
7   -9.759729
dtype: float64
In [3]: df = pd.DataFrame(np.random.randn(10, 4))

In [4]: df.pct_change(periods=3)
Out[4]: 
          0         1         2         3
0       NaN       NaN       NaN       NaN
1       NaN       NaN       NaN       NaN
2       NaN       NaN       NaN       NaN
3 -0.218320 -1.054001  1.987147 -0.510183
4 -0.439121 -1.816454  0.649715 -4.822809
5 -0.127833 -3.042065 -5.866604 -1.776977
6 -2.596833 -1.959538 -2.111697 -3.798900
7 -0.117826 -2.169058  0.036094 -0.067696
8  2.492606 -1.357320 -1.205802 -1.558697
9 -1.012977  2.324558 -1.003744 -0.371806

Covariance

The Series object has a method cov to compute covariance between series (excluding NA/null values).

In [5]: s1 = pd.Series(np.random.randn(1000))

In [6]: s2 = pd.Series(np.random.randn(1000))

In [7]: s1.cov(s2)
Out[7]: 0.00068010881743108746

Analogously, DataFrame has a method cov to compute pairwise covariances among the series in the DataFrame, also excluding NA/null values.

Note

Assuming the missing data are missing at random this results in an estimate for the covariance matrix which is unbiased. However, for many applications this estimate may not be acceptable because the estimated covariance matrix is not guaranteed to be positive semi-definite. This could lead to estimated correlations having absolute values which are greater than one, and/or a non-invertible covariance matrix. See Estimation of covariance matrices for more details.

In [8]: frame = pd.DataFrame(np.random.randn(1000, 5), columns=['a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e'])

In [9]: frame.cov()
Out[9]: 
          a         b         c         d         e
a  1.000882 -0.003177 -0.002698 -0.006889  0.031912
b -0.003177  1.024721  0.000191  0.009212  0.000857
c -0.002698  0.000191  0.950735 -0.031743 -0.005087
d -0.006889  0.009212 -0.031743  1.002983 -0.047952
e  0.031912  0.000857 -0.005087 -0.047952  1.042487

DataFrame.cov also supports an optional min_periods keyword that specifies the required minimum number of observations for each column pair in order to have a valid result.

In [10]: frame = pd.DataFrame(np.random.randn(20, 3), columns=['a', 'b', 'c'])

In [11]: frame.loc[frame.index[:5], 'a'] = np.nan

In [12]: frame.loc[frame.index[5:10], 'b'] = np.nan

In [13]: frame.cov()
Out[13]: 
          a         b         c
a  1.123670 -0.412851  0.018169
b -0.412851  1.154141  0.305260
c  0.018169  0.305260  1.301149

In [14]: frame.cov(min_periods=12)

© 2008–2012, AQR Capital Management, LLC, Lambda Foundry, Inc. and PyData Development Team
Licensed under the 3-clause BSD License.
http://pandas.pydata.org/pandas-docs/version/0.20.2/computation.html