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class Tempfile

Parent:
DelegateClass(File)

A utility class for managing temporary files. When you create a Tempfile object, it will create a temporary file with a unique filename. A Tempfile objects behaves just like a File object, and you can perform all the usual file operations on it: reading data, writing data, changing its permissions, etc. So although this class does not explicitly document all instance methods supported by File, you can in fact call any File instance method on a Tempfile object.

Synopsis

require 'tempfile'

file = Tempfile.new('foo')
file.path      # => A unique filename in the OS's temp directory,
               #    e.g.: "/tmp/foo.24722.0"
               #    This filename contains 'foo' in its basename.
file.write("hello world")
file.rewind
file.read      # => "hello world"
file.close
file.unlink    # deletes the temp file

Good practices

Explicit close

When a Tempfile object is garbage collected, or when the Ruby interpreter exits, its associated temporary file is automatically deleted. This means that's it's unnecessary to explicitly delete a Tempfile after use, though it's good practice to do so: not explicitly deleting unused Tempfiles can potentially leave behind large amounts of tempfiles on the filesystem until they're garbage collected. The existence of these temp files can make it harder to determine a new Tempfile filename.

Therefore, one should always call unlink or close in an ensure block, like this:

file = Tempfile.new('foo')
begin
   ...do something with file...
ensure
   file.close
   file.unlink   # deletes the temp file
end

Unlink after creation

On POSIX systems, it's possible to unlink a file right after creating it, and before closing it. This removes the filesystem entry without closing the file handle, so it ensures that only the processes that already had the file handle open can access the file's contents. It's strongly recommended that you do this if you do not want any other processes to be able to read from or write to the Tempfile, and you do not need to know the Tempfile's filename either.

For example, a practical use case for unlink-after-creation would be this: you need a large byte buffer that's too large to comfortably fit in RAM, e.g. when you're writing a web server and you want to buffer the client's file upload data.

Please refer to unlink for more information and a code example.

Minor notes

Tempfile's filename picking method is both thread-safe and inter-process-safe: it guarantees that no other threads or processes will pick the same filename.

Tempfile itself however may not be entirely thread-safe. If you access the same Tempfile object from multiple threads then you should protect it with a mutex.

Public Class Methods

create(basename="", tmpdir=nil, mode: 0, **options) { |tmpfile| ... } Show source

Creates a temporary file as usual File object (not Tempfile). It doesn't use finalizer and delegation.

If no block is given, this is similar to ::new except creating File instead of Tempfile. The created file is not removed automatically. You should use File.unlink to remove it.

If a block is given, then a File object will be constructed, and the block is invoked with the object as the argument. The File object will be automatically closed and the temporary file is removed after the block terminates. The call returns the value of the block.

In any case, all arguments (+*args+) will be treated as ::new.

Tempfile.create('foo', '/home/temp') do |f|
   ... do something with f ...
end
# File lib/tempfile.rb, line 325
def Tempfile.create(basename="", tmpdir=nil, mode: 0, **options)
  tmpfile = nil
  Dir::Tmpname.create(basename, tmpdir, options) do |tmpname, n, opts|
    mode |= File::RDWR|File::CREAT|File::EXCL
    opts[:perm] = 0600
    tmpfile = File.open(tmpname, mode, opts)
  end
  if block_given?
    begin
      yield tmpfile
    ensure
      tmpfile.close
      File.unlink tmpfile
    end
  else
    tmpfile
  end
end
new(basename = "", [tmpdir = Dir.tmpdir], [options]) Show source

Creates a temporary file with permissions 0600 (= only readable and writable by the owner) and opens it with mode “w+”.

The basename parameter is used to determine the name of the temporary file. You can either pass a String or an Array with 2 String elements. In the former form, the temporary file's base name will begin with the given string. In the latter form, the temporary file's base name will begin with the array's first element, and end with the second element. For example:

file = Tempfile.new('hello')
file.path  # => something like: "/tmp/hello2843-8392-92849382--0"

# Use the Array form to enforce an extension in the filename:
file = Tempfile.new(['hello', '.jpg'])
file.path  # => something like: "/tmp/hello2843-8392-92849382--0.jpg"

The temporary file will be placed in the directory as specified by the tmpdir parameter. By default, this is Dir.tmpdir. When $SAFE > 0 and the given tmpdir is tainted, it uses '/tmp' as the temporary directory. Please note that ENV values are tainted by default, and Dir.tmpdir's return value might come from environment variables (e.g. $TMPDIR).

file = Tempfile.new('hello', '/home/aisaka')
file.path  # => something like: "/home/aisaka/hello2843-8392-92849382--0"

You can also pass an options hash. Under the hood, Tempfile creates the temporary file using File.open. These options will be passed to File.open. This is mostly useful for specifying encoding options, e.g.:

Tempfile.new('hello', '/home/aisaka', :encoding => 'ascii-8bit')

# You can also omit the 'tmpdir' parameter:
Tempfile.new('hello', :encoding => 'ascii-8bit')

Exceptions

If ::new cannot find a unique filename within a limited number of tries, then it will raise an exception.

Calls superclass method
# File lib/tempfile.rb, line 125
def initialize(basename="", tmpdir=nil, mode: 0, **options)
  warn "Tempfile.new doesn't call the given block." if block_given?

  @unlinked = false
  @mode = mode|File::RDWR|File::CREAT|File::EXCL
  ::Dir::Tmpname.create(basename, tmpdir, options) do |tmpname, n, opts|
    opts[:perm] = 0600
    @tmpfile = File.open(tmpname, @mode, opts)
    @opts = opts.freeze
  end
  ObjectSpace.define_finalizer(self, Remover.new(@tmpfile))

  super(@tmpfile)
end
open(*args) { |tempfile| ... } Show source

Creates a new Tempfile.

If no block is given, this is a synonym for ::new.

If a block is given, then a Tempfile object will be constructed, and the block is run with said object as argument. The Tempfile object will be automatically closed after the block terminates. The call returns the value of the block.

In any case, all arguments (+*args+) will be passed to ::new.

Tempfile.open('foo', '/home/temp') do |f|
   ... do something with f ...
end

# Equivalent:
f = Tempfile.open('foo', '/home/temp')
begin
   ... do something with f ...
ensure
   f.close
end
# File lib/tempfile.rb, line 289
def open(*args)
  tempfile = new(*args)

  if block_given?
    begin
      yield(tempfile)
    ensure
      tempfile.close
    end
  else
    tempfile
  end
end

Public Instance Methods

close(unlink_now=false) Show source

Closes the file. If unlink_now is true, then the file will be unlinked (deleted) after closing. Of course, you can choose to later call unlink if you do not unlink it now.

If you don't explicitly unlink the temporary file, the removal will be delayed until the object is finalized.

# File lib/tempfile.rb, line 159
def close(unlink_now=false)
  _close
  unlink if unlink_now
end
close!() Show source

Closes and unlinks (deletes) the file. Has the same effect as called close(true).

# File lib/tempfile.rb, line 166
def close!
  close(true)
end
delete()
Alias for: unlink
length()
Alias for: size
open() Show source

Opens or reopens the file with mode “r+”.

# File lib/tempfile.rb, line 141
def open
  _close
  mode = @mode & ~(File::CREAT|File::EXCL)
  @tmpfile = File.open(@tmpfile.path, mode, @opts)
  __setobj__(@tmpfile)
end
path() Show source

Returns the full path name of the temporary file. This will be nil if unlink has been called.

# File lib/tempfile.rb, line 219
def path
  @unlinked ? nil : @tmpfile.path
end
size() Show source

Returns the size of the temporary file. As a side effect, the IO buffer is flushed before determining the size.

# File lib/tempfile.rb, line 225
def size
  if !@tmpfile.closed?
    @tmpfile.size # File#size calls rb_io_flush_raw()
  else
    File.size(@tmpfile.path)
  end
end
Also aliased as: length

Unlinks (deletes) the file from the filesystem. One should always unlink the file after using it, as is explained in the “Explicit close” good practice section in the Tempfile overview:

file = Tempfile.new('foo')
begin
   ...do something with file...
ensure
   file.close
   file.unlink   # deletes the temp file
end

On POSIX systems it's possible to unlink a file before closing it. This practice is explained in detail in the Tempfile overview (section “Unlink after creation”); please refer there for more information.

However, unlink-before-close may not be supported on non-POSIX operating systems. Microsoft Windows is the most notable case: unlinking a non-closed file will result in an error, which this method will silently ignore. If you want to practice unlink-before-close whenever possible, then you should write code like this:

file = Tempfile.new('foo')
file.unlink   # On Windows this silently fails.
begin
   ... do something with file ...
ensure
   file.close!   # Closes the file handle. If the file wasn't unlinked
                 # because #unlink failed, then this method will attempt
                 # to do so again.
end
Also aliased as: delete

Ruby Core © 1993–2017 Yukihiro Matsumoto
Licensed under the Ruby License.
Ruby Standard Library © contributors
Licensed under their own licenses.