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Robust Linear Models

In [1]:
%matplotlib inline

from __future__ import print_function
import numpy as np
import statsmodels.api as sm
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from statsmodels.sandbox.regression.predstd import wls_prediction_std

Estimation

Load data:

In [2]:
data = sm.datasets.stackloss.load()
data.exog = sm.add_constant(data.exog)

Huber's T norm with the (default) median absolute deviation scaling

In [3]:
huber_t = sm.RLM(data.endog, data.exog, M=sm.robust.norms.HuberT())
hub_results = huber_t.fit()
print(hub_results.params)
print(hub_results.bse)
print(hub_results.summary(yname='y',
            xname=['var_%d' % i for i in range(len(hub_results.params))]))
[-41.02649835   0.82938433   0.92606597  -0.12784672]
[ 9.79189854  0.11100521  0.30293016  0.12864961]
                    Robust linear Model Regression Results                    
==============================================================================
Dep. Variable:                      y   No. Observations:                   21
Model:                            RLM   Df Residuals:                       17
Method:                          IRLS   Df Model:                            3
Norm:                          HuberT                                         
Scale Est.:                       mad                                         
Cov Type:                          H1                                         
Date:                Tue, 28 Feb 2017                                         
Time:                        21:34:10                                         
No. Iterations:                    19                                         
==============================================================================
                 coef    std err          z      P>|z|      [0.025      0.975]
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
var_0        -41.0265      9.792     -4.190      0.000     -60.218     -21.835
var_1          0.8294      0.111      7.472      0.000       0.612       1.047
var_2          0.9261      0.303      3.057      0.002       0.332       1.520
var_3         -0.1278      0.129     -0.994      0.320      -0.380       0.124
==============================================================================

If the model instance has been used for another fit with different fit
parameters, then the fit options might not be the correct ones anymore .

Huber's T norm with 'H2' covariance matrix

In [4]:
hub_results2 = huber_t.fit(cov="H2")
print(hub_results2.params)
print(hub_results2.bse)
[-41.02649835   0.82938433   0.92606597  -0.12784672]
[ 9.08950419  0.11945975  0.32235497  0.11796313]

Andrew's Wave norm with Huber's Proposal 2 scaling and 'H3' covariance matrix

In [5]:
andrew_mod = sm.RLM(data.endog, data.exog, M=sm.robust.norms.AndrewWave())
andrew_results = andrew_mod.fit(scale_est=sm.robust.scale.HuberScale(), cov="H3")
print('Parameters: ', andrew_results.params)
Parameters:  [-40.8817957    0.79276138   1.04857556  -0.13360865]

See help(sm.RLM.fit) for more options and module sm.robust.scale for scale options

Comparing OLS and RLM

Artificial data with outliers:

In [6]:
nsample = 50
x1 = np.linspace(0, 20, nsample)
X = np.column_stack((x1, (x1-5)**2))
X = sm.add_constant(X)
sig = 0.3   # smaller error variance makes OLS<->RLM contrast bigger
beta = [5, 0.5, -0.0]
y_true2 = np.dot(X, beta)
y2 = y_true2 + sig*1. * np.random.normal(size=nsample)
y2[[39,41,43,45,48]] -= 5   # add some outliers (10% of nsample)

Example 1: quadratic function with linear truth

Note that the quadratic term in OLS regression will capture outlier effects.

In [7]:
res = sm.OLS(y2, X).fit()
print(res.params)
print(res.bse)
print(res.predict())
[ 5.00435271  0.54206179 -0.01459468]
[ 0.44760925  0.06910483  0.00611471]
[  4.63948566   4.91787406   5.1913996    5.46006227   5.72386207
   5.98279901   6.23687307   6.48608427   6.7304326    6.96991807
   7.20454066   7.43430039   7.65919725   7.87923124   8.09440236
   8.30471062   8.51015601   8.71073853   8.90645818   9.09731497
   9.28330888   9.46443993   9.64070811   9.81211343   9.97865587
  10.14033545  10.29715216  10.449106    10.59619698  10.73842508
  10.87579032  11.00829269  11.1359322   11.25870883  11.3766226
  11.4896735   11.59786153  11.70118669  11.79964899  11.89324842
  11.98198498  12.06585867  12.1448695   12.21901745  12.28830254
  12.35272476  12.41228412  12.4669806   12.51681422  12.56178497]

Estimate RLM:

In [8]:
resrlm = sm.RLM(y2, X).fit()
print(resrlm.params)
print(resrlm.bse)
[  4.98830133e+00   5.21124476e-01  -3.95637732e-03]
[ 0.1177946   0.0181859   0.00160917]

Draw a plot to compare OLS estimates to the robust estimates:

In [9]:
fig = plt.figure(figsize=(12,8))
ax = fig.add_subplot(111)
ax.plot(x1, y2, 'o',label="data")
ax.plot(x1, y_true2, 'b-', label="True")
prstd, iv_l, iv_u = wls_prediction_std(res)
ax.plot(x1, res.fittedvalues, 'r-', label="OLS")
ax.plot(x1, iv_u, 'r--')
ax.plot(x1, iv_l, 'r--')
ax.plot(x1, resrlm.fittedvalues, 'g.-', label="RLM")
ax.legend(loc="best")
Out[9]:
<matplotlib.legend.Legend at 0x1158f46a0>

Example 2: linear function with linear truth

Fit a new OLS model using only the linear term and the constant:

In [10]:
X2 = X[:,[0,1]] 
res2 = sm.OLS(y2, X2).fit()
print(res2.params)
print(res2.bse)
[ 5.59260775  0.39611497]
[ 0.39150044  0.03373326]

Estimate RLM:

In [11]:
resrlm2 = sm.RLM(y2, X2).fit()
print(resrlm2.params)
print(resrlm2.bse)
[ 5.11833224  0.48612219]
[ 0.09516649  0.00819993]

Draw a plot to compare OLS estimates to the robust estimates:

In [12]:
prstd, iv_l, iv_u = wls_prediction_std(res2)

fig, ax = plt.subplots(figsize=(8,6))
ax.plot(x1, y2, 'o', label="data")
ax.plot(x1, y_true2, 'b-', label="True")
ax.plot(x1, res2.fittedvalues, 'r-', label="OLS")
ax.plot(x1, iv_u, 'r--')
ax.plot(x1, iv_l, 'r--')
ax.plot(x1, resrlm2.fittedvalues, 'g.-', label="RLM")
legend = ax.legend(loc="best")

© 2009–2012 Statsmodels Developers
© 2006–2008 Scipy Developers
© 2006 Jonathan E. Taylor
Licensed under the 3-clause BSD License.
http://www.statsmodels.org/stable/examples/notebooks/generated/robust_models_0.html