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Service worker configuration

Prerequisites

A basic understanding of the following:

The src/ngsw-config.json configuration file specifies which files and data URLs the Angular service worker should cache and how it should update the cached files and data. The Angular CLI processes the configuration file during ng build --prod. Manually, you can process it with the ngsw-config tool:

ngsw-config dist src/ngsw-config.json /base/href

The configuration file uses the JSON format. All file paths must begin with /, which is the deployment directory—usually dist in CLI projects.

Unless otherwise noted, patterns use a limited glob format:

  • ** matches 0 or more path segments.
  • * matches 0 or more characters excluding /.
  • ? matches exactly one character excluding /.
  • The ! prefix marks the pattern as being negative, meaning that only files that don't match the pattern will be included.

Example patterns:

  • /**/*.html specifies all HTML files.
  • /*.html specifies only HTML files in the root.
  • !/**/*.map exclude all sourcemaps.

Each section of the configuration file is described below.

appData

This section enables you to pass any data you want that describes this particular version of the app. The SwUpdate service includes that data in the update notifications. Many apps use this section to provide additional information for the display of UI popups, notifying users of the available update.

index

Specifies the file that serves as the index page to satisfy navigation requests. Usually this is /index.html.

assetGroups

Assets are resources that are part of the app version that update along with the app. They can include resources loaded from the page's origin as well as third-party resources loaded from CDNs and other external URLs. As not all such external URLs may be known at build time, URL patterns can be matched.

This field contains an array of asset groups, each of which defines a set of asset resources and the policy by which they are cached.

{
  "assetGroups": [{
    ...
  }, {
    ...
  }]
}

Each asset group specifies both a group of resources and a policy that governs them. This policy determines when the resources are fetched and what happens when changes are detected.

Asset groups follow the Typescript interface shown here:

interface AssetGroup {
  name: string;
  installMode?: 'prefetch' | 'lazy';
  updateMode?: 'prefetch' | 'lazy';
  resources: {
    files?: string[];
    /** @deprecated As of v6 `versionedFiles` and `files` options have the same behavior. Use `files` instead. */
    versionedFiles?: string[];
    urls?: string[];
  };
}

name

A name is mandatory. It identifies this particular group of assets between versions of the configuration.

installMode

The installMode determines how these resources are initially cached. The installMode can be either of two values:

  • prefetch tells the Angular service worker to fetch every single listed resource while it's caching the current version of the app. This is bandwidth-intensive but ensures resources are available whenever they're requested, even if the browser is currently offline.

  • lazy does not cache any of the resources up front. Instead, the Angular service worker only caches resources for which it receives requests. This is an on-demand caching mode. Resources that are never requested will not be cached. This is useful for things like images at different resolutions, so the service worker only caches the correct assets for the particular screen and orientation.

Defaults to prefetch.

updateMode

For resources already in the cache, the updateMode determines the caching behavior when a new version of the app is discovered. Any resources in the group that have changed since the previous version are updated in accordance with updateMode.

  • prefetch tells the service worker to download and cache the changed resources immediately.

  • lazy tells the service worker to not cache those resources. Instead, it treats them as unrequested and waits until they're requested again before updating them. An updateMode of lazy is only valid if the installMode is also lazy.

Defaults to the value installMode is set to.

resources

This section describes the resources to cache, broken up into three groups.

  • files lists patterns that match files in the distribution directory. These can be single files or glob-like patterns that match a number of files.

  • versionedFiles has been deprecated. As of v6 versionedFiles and files options have the same behavior. Use files instead.

  • urls includes both URLs and URL patterns that will be matched at runtime. These resources are not fetched directly and do not have content hashes, but they will be cached according to their HTTP headers. This is most useful for CDNs such as the Google Fonts service. (Negative glob patterns are not supported and ? will be matched literally; i.e. it will not match any character other than ?.)

dataGroups

Unlike asset resources, data requests are not versioned along with the app. They're cached according to manually-configured policies that are more useful for situations such as API requests and other data dependencies.

Data groups follow this Typescript interface:

export interface DataGroup {
  name: string;
  urls: string[];
  version?: number;
  cacheConfig: {
    maxSize: number;
    maxAge: string;
    timeout?: string;
    strategy?: 'freshness' | 'performance';
  };
}

name

Similar to assetGroups, every data group has a name which uniquely identifies it.

urls

A list of URL patterns. URLs that match these patterns will be cached according to this data group's policy. (Negative glob patterns are not supported and ? will be matched literally; i.e. it will not match any character other than ?.)

version

Occasionally APIs change formats in a way that is not backward-compatible. A new version of the app may not be compatible with the old API format and thus may not be compatible with existing cached resources from that API.

version provides a mechanism to indicate that the resources being cached have been updated in a backwards-incompatible way, and that the old cache entries—those from previous versions—should be discarded.

version is an integer field and defaults to 1.

cacheConfig

This section defines the policy by which matching requests will be cached.

maxSize

(required) The maximum number of entries, or responses, in the cache. Open-ended caches can grow in unbounded ways and eventually exceed storage quotas, calling for eviction.

maxAge

(required) The maxAge parameter indicates how long responses are allowed to remain in the cache before being considered invalid and evicted. maxAge is a duration string, using the following unit suffixes:

  • d: days
  • h: hours
  • m: minutes
  • s: seconds
  • u: milliseconds

For example, the string 3d12h will cache content for up to three and a half days.

timeout

This duration string specifies the network timeout. The network timeout is how long the Angular service worker will wait for the network to respond before using a cached response, if configured to do so. timeout is a duration string, using the following unit suffixes:

  • d: days
  • h: hours
  • m: minutes
  • s: seconds
  • u: milliseconds

For example, the string 5s30u will translate to five seconds and 30 milliseconds of network timeout.

strategy

The Angular service worker can use either of two caching strategies for data resources.

  • performance, the default, optimizes for responses that are as fast as possible. If a resource exists in the cache, the cached version is used, and no network request is made. This allows for some staleness, depending on the maxAge, in exchange for better performance. This is suitable for resources that don't change often; for example, user avatar images.

  • freshness optimizes for currency of data, preferentially fetching requested data from the network. Only if the network times out, according to timeout, does the request fall back to the cache. This is useful for resources that change frequently; for example, account balances.

This optional section enables you to specify a custom list of URLs that will be redirected to the index file.

Handling navigation requests

The ServiceWorker will redirect navigation requests that don't match any asset or data group to the specified index file. A request is considered to be a navigation request if:

  1. Its mode is navigation.
  2. It accepts a text/html response (as determined by the value of the Accept header).
  3. Its URL matches certain criteria (see below).

By default, these criteria are:

  1. The URL must not contain a file extension (i.e. a .) in the last path segment.
  2. The URL must not contain __.

Matching navigation request URLs

While these default criteria are fine in most cases, it is sometimes desirable to configure different rules. For example, you may want to ignore specific routes (that are not part of the Angular app) and pass them through to the server.

This field contains an array of URLs and glob-like URL patterns that will be matched at runtime. It can contain both negative patterns (i.e. patterns starting with !) and non-negative patterns and URLs.

Only requests whose URLs match any of the non-negative URLs/patterns and none of the negative ones will be considered navigation requests. The URL query will be ignored when matching.

If the field is omitted, it defaults to:

[
  '/**',           // Include all URLs.
  '!/**/*.*',      // Exclude URLs to files.
  '!/**/*__*',     // Exclude URLs containing `__` in the last segment.
  '!/**/*__*/**',  // Exclude URLs containing `__` in any other segment.
]

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Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0.
https://v7.angular.io/guide/service-worker-config