Vagrant is a tool to manage virtual machine environments, and allows you to configure and use reproducible work environments on top of various virtualization and cloud platforms. It also has integration with Ansible as a provisioner for these virtual machines, and the two tools work together well.
This guide will describe how to use Vagrant 1.7+ and Ansible together.
If you’re not familiar with Vagrant, you should visit the documentation.
This guide assumes that you already have Ansible installed and working. Running from a Git checkout is fine. Follow the Installing Ansible guide for more information.
The first step once you’ve installed Vagrant is to create a
Vagrantfile and customize it to suit your needs. This is covered in detail in the Vagrant documentation, but here is a quick example that includes a section to use the Ansible provisioner to manage a single machine:
# This guide is optimized for Vagrant 1.8 and above. # Older versions of Vagrant put less info in the inventory they generate. Vagrant.require_version ">= 1.8.0" Vagrant.configure(2) do |config| config.vm.box = "ubuntu/bionic64" config.vm.provision "ansible" do |ansible| ansible.verbose = "v" ansible.playbook = "playbook.yml" end end
config.vm.provision section that refers to an Ansible playbook called
playbook.yml in the same directory as the
Vagrantfile. Vagrant runs the provisioner once the virtual machine has booted and is ready for SSH access.
There are a lot of Ansible options you can configure in your
Vagrantfile. Visit the Ansible Provisioner documentation for more information.
$ vagrant up
This will start the VM, and run the provisioning playbook (on the first VM startup).
To re-run a playbook on an existing VM, just run:
$ vagrant provision
This will re-run the playbook against the existing VM.
Note that having the
ansible.verbose option enabled will instruct Vagrant to show the full
ansible-playbook command used behind the scene, as illustrated by this example:
$ PYTHONUNBUFFERED=1 ANSIBLE_FORCE_COLOR=true ANSIBLE_HOST_KEY_CHECKING=false ANSIBLE_SSH_ARGS='-o UserKnownHostsFile=/dev/null -o IdentitiesOnly=yes -o ControlMaster=auto -o ControlPersist=60s' ansible-playbook --connection=ssh --timeout=30 --limit="default" --inventory-file=/home/someone/coding-in-a-project/.vagrant/provisioners/ansible/inventory -v playbook.yml
This information can be quite useful to debug integration issues and can also be used to manually execute Ansible from a shell, as explained in the next section.
Sometimes you may want to run Ansible manually against the machines. This is faster than kicking
vagrant provision and pretty easy to do.
Vagrantfile example, Vagrant automatically creates an Ansible inventory file in
.vagrant/provisioners/ansible/inventory/vagrant_ansible_inventory. This inventory is configured according to the SSH tunnel that Vagrant automatically creates. A typical automatically-created inventory file for a single machine environment may look something like this:
# Generated by Vagrant default ansible_host=127.0.0.1 ansible_port=2222 ansible_user='vagrant' ansible_ssh_private_key_file='/home/someone/coding-in-a-project/.vagrant/machines/default/virtualbox/private_key'
If you want to run Ansible manually, you will want to make sure to pass
ansible-playbook commands the correct arguments, at least for the inventory.
$ ansible-playbook -i .vagrant/provisioners/ansible/inventory/vagrant_ansible_inventory playbook.yml
The “Tips and Tricks” chapter of the Ansible Provisioner documentation provides detailed information about more advanced Ansible features like:
The Vagrant homepage with downloads
The Vagrant documentation for the Ansible provisioner
The open issues for the Ansible provisioner in the Vagrant project
An introduction to playbooks
© 2012–2018 Michael DeHaan
© 2018–2019 Red Hat, Inc.
Licensed under the GNU General Public License version 3.