The Apache HTTP Server is a modular program where the administrator can choose the functionality to include in the server by selecting a set of modules. Modules will be compiled as Dynamic Shared Objects (DSOs) that exist separately from the main
httpd binary file. DSO modules may be compiled at the time the server is built, or they may be compiled and added at a later time using the Apache Extension Tool (
Alternatively, the modules can be statically compiled into the
httpd binary when the server is built.
This document describes how to use DSO modules as well as the theory behind their use.
The DSO support for loading individual Apache httpd modules is based on a module named
mod_so which must be statically compiled into the Apache httpd core. It is the only module besides
core which cannot be put into a DSO itself. Practically all other distributed Apache httpd modules will then be placed into a DSO. After a module is compiled into a DSO named
mod_foo.so you can use
LoadModule directive in your
httpd.conf file to load this module at server startup or restart.
To simplify this creation of DSO files for Apache httpd modules (especially for third-party modules) a support program named
apxs (APache eXtenSion) is available. It can be used to build DSO based modules outside of the Apache httpd source tree. The idea is simple: When installing Apache HTTP Server the
make install procedure installs the Apache httpd C header files and puts the platform-dependent compiler and linker flags for building DSO files into the
apxs program. This way the user can use
apxs to compile his Apache httpd module sources without the Apache httpd distribution source tree and without having to fiddle with the platform-dependent compiler and linker flags for DSO support.
To give you an overview of the DSO features of Apache HTTP Server 2.x, here is a short and concise summary:
Build and install a distributed Apache httpd module, say
mod_foo.c, into its own DSO
$ ./configure --prefix=/path/to/install --enable-foo $ make install
Configure Apache HTTP Server with all modules enabled. Only a basic set will be loaded during server startup. You can change the set of loaded modules by activating or deactivating the
LoadModule directives in
$ ./configure --enable-mods-shared=all $ make install
Some modules are only useful for developers and will not be build. when using the module set all. To build all available modules including developer modules use reallyall. In addition the
LoadModule directives for all built modules can be activated via the configure option
$ ./configure --enable-mods-shared=reallyall --enable-load-all-modules $ make install
mod_foo.c, into its own DSO
mod_foo.so outside of the Apache httpd source tree using
$ cd /path/to/3rdparty $ apxs -cia mod_foo.c
In all cases, once the shared module is compiled, you must use a
LoadModule directive in
httpd.conf to tell Apache httpd to activate the module.
See the apxs documentation for more details.
On modern Unix derivatives there exists a mechanism called dynamic linking/loading of Dynamic Shared Objects (DSO) which provides a way to build a piece of program code in a special format for loading it at run-time into the address space of an executable program.
This loading can usually be done in two ways: automatically by a system program called
ld.so when an executable program is started or manually from within the executing program via a programmatic system interface to the Unix loader through the system calls
In the first way the DSO's are usually called shared libraries or DSO libraries and named
libfoo.so.1.2. They reside in a system directory (usually
/usr/lib) and the link to the executable program is established at build-time by specifying
-lfoo to the linker command. This hard-codes library references into the executable program file so that at start-time the Unix loader is able to locate
/usr/lib, in paths hard-coded via linker-options like
-R or in paths configured via the environment variable
LD_LIBRARY_PATH. It then resolves any (yet unresolved) symbols in the executable program which are available in the DSO.
Symbols in the executable program are usually not referenced by the DSO (because it's a reusable library of general code) and hence no further resolving has to be done. The executable program has no need to do anything on its own to use the symbols from the DSO because the complete resolving is done by the Unix loader. (In fact, the code to invoke
ld.so is part of the run-time startup code which is linked into every executable program which has been bound non-static). The advantage of dynamic loading of common library code is obvious: the library code needs to be stored only once, in a system library like
libc.so, saving disk space for every program.
In the second way the DSO's are usually called shared objects or DSO files and can be named with an arbitrary extension (although the canonical name is
foo.so). These files usually stay inside a program-specific directory and there is no automatically established link to the executable program where they are used. Instead the executable program manually loads the DSO at run-time into its address space via
dlopen(). At this time no resolving of symbols from the DSO for the executable program is done. But instead the Unix loader automatically resolves any (yet unresolved) symbols in the DSO from the set of symbols exported by the executable program and its already loaded DSO libraries (especially all symbols from the ubiquitous
libc.so). This way the DSO gets knowledge of the executable program's symbol set as if it had been statically linked with it in the first place.
Finally, to take advantage of the DSO's API the executable program has to resolve particular symbols from the DSO via
dlsym() for later use inside dispatch tables etc. In other words: The executable program has to manually resolve every symbol it needs to be able to use it. The advantage of such a mechanism is that optional program parts need not be loaded (and thus do not spend memory) until they are needed by the program in question. When required, these program parts can be loaded dynamically to extend the base program's functionality.
Although this DSO mechanism sounds straightforward there is at least one difficult step here: The resolving of symbols from the executable program for the DSO when using a DSO to extend a program (the second way). Why? Because "reverse resolving" DSO symbols from the executable program's symbol set is against the library design (where the library has no knowledge about the programs it is used by) and is neither available under all platforms nor standardized. In practice the executable program's global symbols are often not re-exported and thus not available for use in a DSO. Finding a way to force the linker to export all global symbols is the main problem one has to solve when using DSO for extending a program at run-time.
The shared library approach is the typical one, because it is what the DSO mechanism was designed for, hence it is used for nearly all types of libraries the operating system provides.
The above DSO based features have the following advantages:
httpd.conf configuration directives instead of
configure options at build-time. For instance, this way one is able to run different server instances (standard & SSL version, minimalistic & dynamic version [mod_perl, mod_php], etc.) with only one Apache httpd installation.
apxs pair you can both work outside the Apache httpd source tree and only need an
apxs -i command followed by an
apachectl restart to bring a new version of your currently developed module into the running Apache HTTP Server.
DSO has the following disadvantages:
ld -lfoo) on all platforms (for instance a.out-based platforms usually don't provide this functionality while ELF-based platforms do) you cannot use the DSO mechanism for all types of modules. Or in other words, modules compiled as DSO files are restricted to only use symbols from the Apache httpd core, from the C library (
libc) and all other dynamic or static libraries used by the Apache httpd core, or from static library archives (
libfoo.a) containing position independent code. The only chances to use other code is to either make sure the httpd core itself already contains a reference to it or loading the code yourself via
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Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0.