mod_rewrite should be considered a last resort, when other alternatives are found wanting. Using it when there are simpler alternatives leads to configurations which are confusing, fragile, and hard to maintain. Understanding what other alternatives are available is a very important step towards
Note that many of these examples won't work unchanged in your particular server configuration, so it's important that you understand them, rather than merely cutting and pasting the examples into your configuration.
The most common situation in which
mod_rewrite is the right tool is when the very best solution requires access to the server configuration files, and you don't have that access. Some configuration directives are only available in the server configuration file. So if you are in a hosting situation where you only have .htaccess files to work with, you may need to resort to
mod_alias provides the
RedirectMatch directives, which provide a means to redirect one URL to another. This kind of simple redirection of one URL, or a class of URLs, to somewhere else, should be accomplished using these directives rather than
RedirectMatch allows you to include a regular expression in your redirection criteria, providing many of the benefits of using
A common use for
RewriteRule is to redirect an entire class of URLs. For example, all URLs in the
/one directory must be redirected to
http://one.example.com/, or perhaps all
http requests must be redirected to
These situations are better handled by the
Redirect directive. Remember that
Redirect preserves path information. That is to say, a redirect for a URL
/one will also redirect all URLs under that, such as
To redirect URLs under
http://one.example.com, do the following:
Redirect "/one/" "http://one.example.com/"
To redirect one hostname to another, for example
www.example.com, see the Canonical Hostnames recipe.
http URLs to
https, do the following:
<VirtualHost *:80> ServerName www.example.com Redirect "/" "https://www.example.com/" </VirtualHost> <VirtualHost *:443> ServerName www.example.com # ... SSL configuration goes here </VirtualHost>
The use of
RewriteRule to perform this task may be appropriate if there are other
RewriteRule directives in the same scope. This is because, when there are
RewriteRule directives in the same scope, the
RewriteRule directives will run first, regardless of the order of appearance in the configuration file.
In the case of the http-to-https redirection, the use of
RewriteRule would be appropriate if you don't have access to the main server configuration file, and are obliged to perform this task in a
.htaccess file instead.
Alias directive provides mapping from a URI to a directory - usually a directory outside of your
DocumentRoot. Although it is possible to perform this mapping with
Alias is the preferred method, for reasons of simplicity and performance.
Alias "/cats" "/var/www/virtualhosts/felines/htdocs"
The use of
mod_rewrite to perform this mapping may be appropriate when you do not have access to the server configuration files. Alias may only be used in server or virtualhost context, and not in a
Symbolic links would be another way to accomplish the same thing, if you have
Options FollowSymLinks enabled on your server.
Although it is possible to handle virtual hosts with mod_rewrite, it is seldom the right way. Creating individual
<VirtualHost> blocks is almost always the right way to go. In the event that you have an enormous number of virtual hosts, consider using
mod_vhost_alias to create these hosts automatically.
Modules such as
mod_macro are also useful for creating a large number of virtual hosts dynamically.
mod_rewrite for vitualhost creation may be appropriate if you are using a hosting service that does not provide you access to the server configuration files, and you are therefore restricted to configuration using
See the virtual hosts with mod_rewrite document for more details on how you might accomplish this if it still seems like the right approach.
RewriteRule "^/?images(.*)" "http://imageserver.local/images$1" [P]
However, in many cases, when there is no actual pattern matching needed, as in the example shown above, the
ProxyPass directive is a better choice. The example here could be rendered as:
ProxyPass "/images/" "http://imageserver.local/images/"
ProxyPassReverse "/images/" "http://imageserver.local/images/"
You may need to use
RewriteRule instead when there are other
RewriteRules in effect in the same scope, as a
RewriteRule will usually take effect before a
ProxyPass, and so may preempt what you're trying to accomplish.
Consider, for example, the common scenario where
RewriteRule is used to enforce a canonical hostname, such as
www.example.com instead of
example.com. This can be done using the
<If> directive, as shown here:
<If "req('Host') != 'www.example.com'"> Redirect "/" "http://www.example.com/" </If>
This technique can be used to take actions based on any request header, response header, or environment variable, replacing
mod_rewrite in many common scenarios.
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Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0.