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/CakePHP 3.8

Interface QueryInterface

The basis for every query object

Direct Implementers

Constants summary

  • string

    JOIN_TYPE_INNER
    'INNER'
  • string

    JOIN_TYPE_LEFT
    'LEFT'
  • string

    JOIN_TYPE_RIGHT
    'RIGHT'

Method Summary

  • aliasField() public

    Returns a key => value array representing a single aliased field that can be passed directly to the select() method. The key will contain the alias and the value the actual field name.

  • aliasFields() public

    Runs aliasField() for each field in the provided list and returns the result under a single array.

  • all() public
    Fetch the results for this query.
  • Populates or adds parts to current query clauses using an array. This is handy for passing all query clauses at once. The option array accepts:

  • count() public
    Returns the total amount of results for the query.
  • find() public
    Apply custom finds to against an existing query object.
  • first() public

    Returns the first result out of executing this query, if the query has not been executed before, it will set the limit clause to 1 for performance reasons.

  • limit() public

    Sets the number of records that should be retrieved from database, accepts an integer or an expression object that evaluates to an integer. In some databases, this operation might not be supported or will require the query to be transformed in order to limit the result set size.

  • offset() public

    Sets the number of records that should be skipped from the original result set This is commonly used for paginating large results. Accepts an integer or an expression object that evaluates to an integer.

  • order() public

    Adds a single or multiple fields to be used in the ORDER clause for this query. Fields can be passed as an array of strings, array of expression objects, a single expression or a single string.

  • page() public
    Set the page of results you want.
  • repository() public

    Returns the default repository object that will be used by this query, that is, the repository that will appear in the from clause.

  • toArray() public
    Returns an array representation of the results after executing the query.
  • where() public

    Adds a condition or set of conditions to be used in the WHERE clause for this query. Conditions can be expressed as an array of fields as keys with comparison operators in it, the values for the array will be used for comparing the field to such literal. Finally, conditions can be expressed as a single string or an array of strings.

Method Detail

aliasField()source public

aliasField( string $field , string|null $alias = null )

Returns a key => value array representing a single aliased field that can be passed directly to the select() method. The key will contain the alias and the value the actual field name.

If the field is already aliased, then it will not be changed. If no $alias is passed, the default table for this query will be used.

Parameters

string $field
The field to alias
string|null $alias optional null
the alias used to prefix the field

Returns

string

aliasFields()source public

aliasFields( array $fields , string|null $defaultAlias = null )

Runs aliasField() for each field in the provided list and returns the result under a single array.

Parameters

array $fields
The fields to alias
string|null $defaultAlias optional null
The default alias

Returns

string[]

all()source public

all( )

Fetch the results for this query.

Will return either the results set through setResult(), or execute this query and return the ResultSetDecorator object ready for streaming of results.

ResultSetDecorator is a traversable object that implements the methods found on Cake\Collection\Collection.

Returns

Cake\Datasource\ResultSetInterface

applyOptions()source public

applyOptions( array $options )

Populates or adds parts to current query clauses using an array. This is handy for passing all query clauses at once. The option array accepts:

  • fields: Maps to the select method
  • conditions: Maps to the where method
  • limit: Maps to the limit method
  • order: Maps to the order method
  • offset: Maps to the offset method
  • group: Maps to the group method
  • having: Maps to the having method
  • contain: Maps to the contain options for eager loading
  • join: Maps to the join method
  • page: Maps to the page method

Example:

$query->applyOptions([
  'fields' => ['id', 'name'],
  'conditions' => [
    'created >=' => '2013-01-01'
  ],
  'limit' => 10
]);

Is equivalent to:

$query
 ->select(['id', 'name'])
 ->where(['created >=' => '2013-01-01'])
 ->limit(10)

Parameters

array $options
list of query clauses to apply new parts to.

Returns


$this

count()source public

count( )

Returns the total amount of results for the query.

Returns

integer

find()source public

find( string $finder , array $options = [] )

Apply custom finds to against an existing query object.

Allows custom find methods to be combined and applied to each other.

$repository->find('all')->find('recent');

The above is an example of stacking multiple finder methods onto a single query.

Parameters

string $finder
The finder method to use.
array $options optional []
The options for the finder.

Returns


$this Returns a modified query.

first()source public

first( )

Returns the first result out of executing this query, if the query has not been executed before, it will set the limit clause to 1 for performance reasons.

Example:

$singleUser = $query->select(['id', 'username'])->first();

Returns

mixed
the first result from the ResultSet

limit()source public

limit( integer $num )

Sets the number of records that should be retrieved from database, accepts an integer or an expression object that evaluates to an integer. In some databases, this operation might not be supported or will require the query to be transformed in order to limit the result set size.

Examples

$query->limit(10) // generates LIMIT 10
$query->limit($query->newExpr()->add(['1 + 1'])); // LIMIT (1 + 1)

Parameters

integer $num
number of records to be returned

Returns


$this

offset()source public

offset( integer $num )

Sets the number of records that should be skipped from the original result set This is commonly used for paginating large results. Accepts an integer or an expression object that evaluates to an integer.

In some databases, this operation might not be supported or will require the query to be transformed in order to limit the result set size.

Examples

$query->offset(10) // generates OFFSET 10
 $query->offset($query->newExpr()->add(['1 + 1'])); // OFFSET (1 + 1)

Parameters

integer $num
number of records to be skipped

Returns


$this

order()source public

order( array|string $fields , boolean $overwrite = false )

Adds a single or multiple fields to be used in the ORDER clause for this query. Fields can be passed as an array of strings, array of expression objects, a single expression or a single string.

If an array is passed, keys will be used as the field itself and the value will represent the order in which such field should be ordered. When called multiple times with the same fields as key, the last order definition will prevail over the others.

By default this function will append any passed argument to the list of fields to be selected, unless the second argument is set to true.

Examples:

$query->order(['title' => 'DESC', 'author_id' => 'ASC']);

Produces:

ORDER BY title DESC, author_id ASC

$query->order(['title' => 'DESC NULLS FIRST'])->order('author_id');

Will generate:

ORDER BY title DESC NULLS FIRST, author_id

$expression = $query->newExpr()->add(['id % 2 = 0']);
$query->order($expression)->order(['title' => 'ASC']);

Will become:

ORDER BY (id %2 = 0), title ASC

If you need to set complex expressions as order conditions, you should use orderAsc() or orderDesc().

Parameters

array|string $fields
fields to be added to the list
boolean $overwrite optional false
whether to reset order with field list or not

Returns


$this

page()source public

page( integer $num , integer|null $limit = null )

Set the page of results you want.

This method provides an easier to use interface to set the limit + offset in the record set you want as results. If empty the limit will default to the existing limit clause, and if that too is empty, then 25 will be used.

Pages must start at 1.

Parameters

integer $num
The page number you want.
integer|null $limit optional null

The number of rows you want in the page. If null the current limit clause will be used.

Returns


$this

Throws

InvalidArgumentException
If page number < 1.

repository()source public

repository( Cake\Datasource\RepositoryInterface $repository = null )

Returns the default repository object that will be used by this query, that is, the repository that will appear in the from clause.

Parameters

Cake\Datasource\RepositoryInterface $repository optional null
The default repository object to use

Returns

Cake\Datasource\RepositoryInterface|Cake\Datasource\QueryInterface
$this

toArray()source public

toArray( )

Returns an array representation of the results after executing the query.

Returns

array

where()source public

where( string|array|callable|null $conditions = null , array $types = [] , boolean $overwrite = false )

Adds a condition or set of conditions to be used in the WHERE clause for this query. Conditions can be expressed as an array of fields as keys with comparison operators in it, the values for the array will be used for comparing the field to such literal. Finally, conditions can be expressed as a single string or an array of strings.

When using arrays, each entry will be joined to the rest of the conditions using an AND operator. Consecutive calls to this function will also join the new conditions specified using the AND operator. Additionally, values can be expressed using expression objects which can include other query objects.

Any conditions created with this methods can be used with any SELECT, UPDATE and DELETE type of queries.

Conditions using operators:

$query->where([
     'posted >=' => new DateTime('3 days ago'),
     'title LIKE' => 'Hello W%',
     'author_id' => 1,
 ], ['posted' => 'datetime']);

The previous example produces:

WHERE posted >= 2012-01-27 AND title LIKE 'Hello W%' AND author_id = 1

Second parameter is used to specify what type is expected for each passed key. Valid types can be used from the mapped with Database\Type class.

Nesting conditions with conjunctions:

$query->where([
     'author_id !=' => 1,
     'OR' => ['published' => true, 'posted <' => new DateTime('now')],
     'NOT' => ['title' => 'Hello']
 ], ['published' => boolean, 'posted' => 'datetime']

The previous example produces:

WHERE author_id = 1 AND (published = 1 OR posted < '2012-02-01') AND NOT (title = 'Hello')

You can nest conditions using conjunctions as much as you like. Sometimes, you may want to define 2 different options for the same key, in that case, you can wrap each condition inside a new array:

$query->where(['OR' => [['published' => false], ['published' => true]])

Keep in mind that every time you call where() with the third param set to false (default), it will join the passed conditions to the previous stored list using the AND operator. Also, using the same array key twice in consecutive calls to this method will not override the previous value.

Using expressions objects:

$exp = $query->newExpr()->add(['id !=' => 100, 'author_id' != 1])->tieWith('OR');
 $query->where(['published' => true], ['published' => 'boolean'])->where($exp);

The previous example produces:

WHERE (id != 100 OR author_id != 1) AND published = 1

Other Query objects that be used as conditions for any field.

Adding conditions in multiple steps:

You can use callable functions to construct complex expressions, functions receive as first argument a new QueryExpression object and this query instance as second argument. Functions must return an expression object, that will be added the list of conditions for the query using the AND operator.

$query
 ->where(['title !=' => 'Hello World'])
 ->where(function ($exp, $query) {
     $or = $exp->or_(['id' => 1]);
     $and = $exp->and_(['id >' => 2, 'id <' => 10]);
 return $or->add($and);
 });
  • The previous example produces:

WHERE title != 'Hello World' AND (id = 1 OR (id > 2 AND id < 10))

Conditions as strings:

$query->where(['articles.author_id = authors.id', 'modified IS NULL']);

The previous example produces:

WHERE articles.author_id = authors.id AND modified IS NULL

Please note that when using the array notation or the expression objects, all values will be correctly quoted and transformed to the correspondent database data type automatically for you, thus securing your application from SQL injections. If you use string conditions make sure that your values are correctly quoted. The safest thing you can do is to never use string conditions.

Parameters

string|array|callable|null $conditions optional null
The conditions to filter on.
array $types optional []
associative array of type names used to bind values to query
boolean $overwrite optional false
whether to reset conditions with passed list or not

Returns


$this

Magic methods summary

getRepository()source public

getRepository( )

Returns

Cake\Datasource\RepositoryInterface

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https://api.cakephp.org/3.8/class-Cake.Datasource.QueryInterface.html