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/CakePHP 3.8

Class Hash

Library of array functions for manipulating and extracting data from arrays or 'sets' of data.

Hash provides an improved interface, more consistent and predictable set of features over Set. While it lacks the spotty support for pseudo Xpath, its more fully featured dot notation provides similar features in a more consistent implementation.

Method Summary

  • _filter() protected static
    Callback function for filtering.
  • _matchToken() protected static
    Check a key against a token.
  • _matches() protected static
    Checks whether or not $data matches the attribute patterns
  • _merge() protected static
    Merge helper function to reduce duplicated code between merge() and expand().
  • _simpleOp() protected static
    Perform a simple insert/remove operation.
  • _splitConditions() protected static
    Split token conditions
  • _squash() protected static

    Helper method for sort() Squashes an array to a single hash so it can be sorted.

  • apply() public static

    Apply a callback to a set of extracted values using $function. The function will get the extracted values as the first argument.

  • check() public static

    Test whether or not a given path exists in $data. This method uses the same path syntax as Hash::extract()

  • combine() public static

    Creates an associative array using $keyPath as the path to build its keys, and optionally $valuePath as path to get the values. If $valuePath is not specified, all values will be initialized to null (useful for Hash::merge). You can optionally group the values by what is obtained when following the path specified in $groupPath.

  • contains() public static
    Determines if one array contains the exact keys and values of another.
  • diff() public static

    Computes the difference between two complex arrays. This method differs from the built-in array_diff() in that it will preserve keys and work on multi-dimensional arrays.

  • dimensions() public static

    Counts the dimensions of an array. Only considers the dimension of the first element in the array.

  • expand() public static
    Expands a flat array to a nested array.
  • extract() public static

    Gets the values from an array matching the $path expression. The path expression is a dot separated expression, that can contain a set of patterns and expressions:

  • filter() public static
    Recursively filters a data set.
  • flatten() public static

    Collapses a multi-dimensional array into a single dimension, using a delimited array path for each array element's key, i.e. [['Foo' => ['Bar' => 'Far']]] becomes ['0.Foo.Bar' => 'Far'].)

  • format() public static

    Returns a formatted series of values extracted from $data, using $format as the format and $paths as the values to extract.

  • get() public static

    Get a single value specified by $path out of $data. Does not support the full dot notation feature set, but is faster for simple read operations.

  • insert() public static

    Insert $values into an array with the given $path. You can use {n} and {s} elements to insert $data multiple times.

  • map() public static

    Map a callback across all elements in a set. Can be provided a path to only modify slices of the set.

  • maxDimensions() public static

    Counts the dimensions of all array elements. Useful for finding the maximum number of dimensions in a mixed array.

  • merge() public static
    This function can be thought of as a hybrid between PHP's array_merge and array_merge_recursive.
  • mergeDiff() public static
    Merges the difference between $data and $compare onto $data.
  • nest() public static
    Takes in a flat array and returns a nested array
  • normalize() public static
    Normalizes an array, and converts it to a standard format.
  • numeric() public static
    Checks to see if all the values in the array are numeric
  • reduce() public static
    Reduce a set of extracted values using $function.
  • remove() public static

    Remove data matching $path from the $data array. You can use {n} and {s} to remove multiple elements from $data.

  • sort() public static
    Sorts an array by any value, determined by a Set-compatible path

Method Detail

_filter()source protected static

_filter( mixed $var )

Callback function for filtering.

Parameters

mixed $var
Array to filter.

Returns

boolean

_matchToken()source protected static

_matchToken( string $key , string $token )

Check a key against a token.

Parameters

string $key
The key in the array being searched.
string $token
The token being matched.

Returns

boolean

_matches()source protected static

_matches( array|ArrayAccess $data , string $selector )

Checks whether or not $data matches the attribute patterns

Parameters

array|ArrayAccess $data
Array of data to match.
string $selector
The patterns to match.

Returns

boolean
Fitness of expression.

_merge()source protected static

_merge( array $stack , array $return )

Merge helper function to reduce duplicated code between merge() and expand().

Parameters

array $stack
The stack of operations to work with.
array $return
The return value to operate on.

_simpleOp()source protected static

_simpleOp( string $op , array $data , array $path , mixed $values = null )

Perform a simple insert/remove operation.

Parameters

string $op
The operation to do.
array $data
The data to operate on.
array $path
The path to work on.
mixed $values optional null
The values to insert when doing inserts.

Returns

array
data.

_splitConditions()source protected static

_splitConditions( string $token )

Split token conditions

Parameters

string $token
the token being splitted.

Returns

array
[token, conditions] with token splitted

_squash()source protected static

_squash( array $data , string|null $key = null )

Helper method for sort() Squashes an array to a single hash so it can be sorted.

Parameters

array $data
The data to squash.
string|null $key optional null
The key for the data.

Returns

array

apply()source public static

apply( array $data , string $path , callable $function )

Apply a callback to a set of extracted values using $function. The function will get the extracted values as the first argument.

Example

You can easily count the results of an extract using apply(). For example to count the comments on an Article:

$count = Hash::apply($data, 'Article.Comment.{n}', 'count');

You could also use a function like array_sum to sum the results.

$total = Hash::apply($data, '{n}.Item.price', 'array_sum');

Parameters

array $data
The data to reduce.
string $path
The path to extract from $data.
callable $function
The function to call on each extracted value.

Returns

mixed
The results of the applied method.

Link

https://book.cakephp.org/3.0/en/core-libraries/hash.html#Cake\Utility\Hash::apply

check()source public static

check( array $data , string $path )

Test whether or not a given path exists in $data. This method uses the same path syntax as Hash::extract()

Checking for paths that could target more than one element will make sure that at least one matching element exists.

Parameters

array $data
The data to check.
string $path
The path to check for.

Returns

boolean
Existence of path.

See

\Cake\Utility\Hash::extract()

Link

https://book.cakephp.org/3.0/en/core-libraries/hash.html#Cake\Utility\Hash::check

combine()source public static

combine( array $data , string $keyPath , string|null $valuePath = null , string|null $groupPath = null )

Creates an associative array using $keyPath as the path to build its keys, and optionally $valuePath as path to get the values. If $valuePath is not specified, all values will be initialized to null (useful for Hash::merge). You can optionally group the values by what is obtained when following the path specified in $groupPath.

Parameters

array $data
Array from where to extract keys and values
string $keyPath
A dot-separated string.
string|null $valuePath optional null
A dot-separated string.
string|null $groupPath optional null
A dot-separated string.

Returns

array
Combined array

Throws

RuntimeException
When keys and values count is unequal.

Link

https://book.cakephp.org/3.0/en/core-libraries/hash.html#Cake\Utility\Hash::combine

contains()source public static

contains( array $data , array $needle )

Determines if one array contains the exact keys and values of another.

Parameters

array $data
The data to search through.
array $needle
The values to file in $data

Returns

boolean
true If $data contains $needle, false otherwise

Link

https://book.cakephp.org/3.0/en/core-libraries/hash.html#Cake\Utility\Hash::contains

diff()source public static

diff( array $data , array $compare )

Computes the difference between two complex arrays. This method differs from the built-in array_diff() in that it will preserve keys and work on multi-dimensional arrays.

Parameters

array $data
First value
array $compare
Second value

Returns

array

Returns the key => value pairs that are not common in $data and $compare The expression for this function is ($data - $compare) + ($compare - ($data - $compare))


Link

https://book.cakephp.org/3.0/en/core-libraries/hash.html#Cake\Utility\Hash::diff

dimensions()source public static

dimensions( array $data )

Counts the dimensions of an array. Only considers the dimension of the first element in the array.

If you have an un-even or heterogeneous array, consider using Hash::maxDimensions() to get the dimensions of the array.

Parameters

array $data
Array to count dimensions on

Returns

integer
The number of dimensions in $data

Link

https://book.cakephp.org/3.0/en/core-libraries/hash.html#Cake\Utility\Hash::dimensions

expand()source public static

expand( array $data , string $separator = '.' )

Expands a flat array to a nested array.

For example, unflattens an array that was collapsed with Hash::flatten() into a multi-dimensional array. So, ['0.Foo.Bar' => 'Far'] becomes [['Foo' => ['Bar' => 'Far']]].

Parameters

array $data
Flattened array
string $separator optional '.'
The delimiter used

Returns

array

Link

https://book.cakephp.org/3.0/en/core-libraries/hash.html#Cake\Utility\Hash::expand

extract()source public static

extract( array|ArrayAccess $data , string $path )

Gets the values from an array matching the $path expression. The path expression is a dot separated expression, that can contain a set of patterns and expressions:

  • {n} Matches any numeric key, or integer.
  • {s} Matches any string key.
  • {*} Matches any value.
  • Foo Matches any key with the exact same value.

There are a number of attribute operators:

  • =, != Equality.
  • >, <, >=, <= Value comparison.
  • =/.../ Regular expression pattern match.

Given a set of User array data, from a $User->find('all') call:

  • 1.User.name Get the name of the user at index 1.
  • {n}.User.name Get the name of every user in the set of users.
  • {n}.User[id].name Get the name of every user with an id key.
  • {n}.User[id>=2].name Get the name of every user with an id key greater than or equal to 2.
  • {n}.User[username=/^paul/] Get User elements with username matching ^paul.
  • {n}.User[id=1].name Get the Users name with id matching 1.

Parameters

array|ArrayAccess $data
The data to extract from.
string $path
The path to extract.

Returns

array|ArrayAccess

An array of the extracted values. Returns an empty array if there are no matches.


Link

https://book.cakephp.org/3.0/en/core-libraries/hash.html#Cake\Utility\Hash::extract

filter()source public static

filter( array $data , callable|array $callback = ['self', '_filter'] )

Recursively filters a data set.

Parameters

array $data
Either an array to filter, or value when in callback
callable|array $callback optional ['self', '_filter']

A function to filter the data with. Defaults to static::_filter() Which strips out all non-zero empty values.

Returns

array
Filtered array

Link

https://book.cakephp.org/3.0/en/core-libraries/hash.html#Cake\Utility\Hash::filter

flatten()source public static

flatten( array $data , string $separator = '.' )

Collapses a multi-dimensional array into a single dimension, using a delimited array path for each array element's key, i.e. [['Foo' => ['Bar' => 'Far']]] becomes ['0.Foo.Bar' => 'Far'].)

Parameters

array $data
Array to flatten
string $separator optional '.'
String used to separate array key elements in a path, defaults to '.'

Returns

array

Link

https://book.cakephp.org/3.0/en/core-libraries/hash.html#Cake\Utility\Hash::flatten

format()source public static

format( array $data , array $paths , string $format )

Returns a formatted series of values extracted from $data, using $format as the format and $paths as the values to extract.

Usage:

$result = Hash::format($users, ['{n}.User.id', '{n}.User.name'], '%s : %s');

The $format string can use any format options that vsprintf() and sprintf() do.

Parameters

array $data
Source array from which to extract the data
array $paths
An array containing one or more Hash::extract()-style key paths
string $format
Format string into which values will be inserted, see sprintf()

Returns

array|null
An array of strings extracted from $path and formatted with $format

Link

https://book.cakephp.org/3.0/en/core-libraries/hash.html#Cake\Utility\Hash::format

See

sprintf()
\Cake\Utility\Hash::extract()

get()source public static

get( array|ArrayAccess $data , string|array $path , mixed $default = null )

Get a single value specified by $path out of $data. Does not support the full dot notation feature set, but is faster for simple read operations.

Parameters

array|ArrayAccess $data

Array of data or object implementing \ArrayAccess interface to operate on.

string|array $path

The path being searched for. Either a dot separated string, or an array of path segments.

mixed $default optional null
The return value when the path does not exist

Returns

mixed
The value fetched from the array, or null.

Throws

InvalidArgumentException

Link

https://book.cakephp.org/3.0/en/core-libraries/hash.html#Cake\Utility\Hash::get

insert()source public static

insert( array $data , string $path , array|null $values = null )

Insert $values into an array with the given $path. You can use {n} and {s} elements to insert $data multiple times.

Parameters

array $data
The data to insert into.
string $path
The path to insert at.
array|null $values optional null
The values to insert.

Returns

array
The data with $values inserted.

Link

https://book.cakephp.org/3.0/en/core-libraries/hash.html#Cake\Utility\Hash::insert

map()source public static

map( array $data , string $path , callable $function )

Map a callback across all elements in a set. Can be provided a path to only modify slices of the set.

Parameters

array $data
The data to map over, and extract data out of.
string $path
The path to extract for mapping over.
callable $function
The function to call on each extracted value.

Returns

array
An array of the modified values.

Link

https://book.cakephp.org/3.0/en/core-libraries/hash.html#Cake\Utility\Hash::map

maxDimensions()source public static

maxDimensions( array $data )

Counts the dimensions of all array elements. Useful for finding the maximum number of dimensions in a mixed array.

Parameters

array $data
Array to count dimensions on

Returns

integer
The maximum number of dimensions in $data

Link

https://book.cakephp.org/3.0/en/core-libraries/hash.html#Cake\Utility\Hash::maxDimensions

merge()source public static

merge( array $data , mixed $merge )

This function can be thought of as a hybrid between PHP's array_merge and array_merge_recursive.

The difference between this method and the built-in ones, is that if an array key contains another array, then Hash::merge() will behave in a recursive fashion (unlike array_merge). But it will not act recursively for keys that contain scalar values (unlike array_merge_recursive).

Note: This function will work with an unlimited amount of arguments and typecasts non-array parameters into arrays.

Parameters

array $data
Array to be merged
mixed $merge
Array to merge with. The argument and all trailing arguments will be array cast when merged

Returns

array
Merged array

Link

https://book.cakephp.org/3.0/en/core-libraries/hash.html#Cake\Utility\Hash::merge

mergeDiff()source public static

mergeDiff( array $data , array $compare )

Merges the difference between $data and $compare onto $data.

Parameters

array $data
The data to append onto.
array $compare
The data to compare and append onto.

Returns

array
The merged array.

Link

https://book.cakephp.org/3.0/en/core-libraries/hash.html#Cake\Utility\Hash::mergeDiff

nest()source public static

nest( array $data , array $options = [] )

Takes in a flat array and returns a nested array

Options:

  • children The key name to use in the resultset for children.
  • idPath The path to a key that identifies each entry. Should be compatible with Hash::extract(). Defaults to {n}.$alias.id
  • parentPath The path to a key that identifies the parent of each entry. Should be compatible with Hash::extract(). Defaults to {n}.$alias.parent_id
  • root The id of the desired top-most result.

Parameters

array $data
The data to nest.
array $options optional []
Options are:

Returns

array
of results, nested

Throws

InvalidArgumentException
When providing invalid data.

See

\Cake\Utility\Hash::extract()

Link

https://book.cakephp.org/3.0/en/core-libraries/hash.html#Cake\Utility\Hash::nest

normalize()source public static

normalize( array $data , boolean $assoc = true )

Normalizes an array, and converts it to a standard format.

Parameters

array $data
List to normalize
boolean $assoc optional true
If true, $data will be converted to an associative array.

Returns

array

Link

https://book.cakephp.org/3.0/en/core-libraries/hash.html#Cake\Utility\Hash::normalize

numeric()source public static

numeric( array $data )

Checks to see if all the values in the array are numeric

Parameters

array $data
The array to check.

Returns

boolean
true if values are numeric, false otherwise

Link

https://book.cakephp.org/3.0/en/core-libraries/hash.html#Cake\Utility\Hash::numeric

reduce()source public static

reduce( array $data , string $path , callable $function )

Reduce a set of extracted values using $function.

Parameters

array $data
The data to reduce.
string $path
The path to extract from $data.
callable $function
The function to call on each extracted value.

Returns

mixed
The reduced value.

Link

https://book.cakephp.org/3.0/en/core-libraries/hash.html#Cake\Utility\Hash::reduce

remove()source public static

remove( array $data , string $path )

Remove data matching $path from the $data array. You can use {n} and {s} to remove multiple elements from $data.

Parameters

array $data
The data to operate on
string $path
A path expression to use to remove.

Returns

array
The modified array.

Link

https://book.cakephp.org/3.0/en/core-libraries/hash.html#Cake\Utility\Hash::remove

sort()source public static

sort( array $data , string $path , string $dir = 'asc' , array|string $type = 'regular' )

Sorts an array by any value, determined by a Set-compatible path

Sort directions

  • asc Sort ascending.
  • desc Sort descending.

Sort types

  • regular For regular sorting (don't change types)
  • numeric Compare values numerically
  • string Compare values as strings
  • locale Compare items as strings, based on the current locale
  • natural Compare items as strings using "natural ordering" in a human friendly way Will sort foo10 below foo2 as an example.

To do case insensitive sorting, pass the type as an array as follows:

Hash::sort($data, 'some.attribute', 'asc', ['type' => 'regular', 'ignoreCase' => true]);

When using the array form, type defaults to 'regular'. The ignoreCase option defaults to false.

Parameters

array $data
An array of data to sort
string $path
A Set-compatible path to the array value
string $dir optional 'asc'
See directions above. Defaults to 'asc'.
array|string $type optional 'regular'
See direction types above. Defaults to 'regular'.

Returns

array
Sorted array of data

Link

https://book.cakephp.org/3.0/en/core-libraries/hash.html#Cake\Utility\Hash::sort

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