std::div, std::ldiv, std::lldiv

Defined in header <cstdlib>
std::div_t     div( int x, int y );
std::ldiv_t    div( long x, long y );
std::lldiv_t   div( long long x, long long y );
(3) (since C++11)
std::ldiv_t   ldiv( long x, long y );
std::lldiv_t lldiv( long long x, long long y );
(5) (since C++11)
Defined in header <cinttypes>
std::imaxdiv_t div( std::intmax_t x, std::intmax_t y );
(6) (since C++11)
std::imaxdiv_t imaxdiv( std::intmax_t x, std::intmax_t y );
(7) (since C++11)

Computes both the quotient and the remainder of the division of the numerator x by the denominator y.

The quotient is the algebraic quotient with any fractional part discarded (truncated towards zero). The remainder is such that quot * y + rem == x.

(until C++11)

The quotient is the result of the expression x/y. The remainder is the result of the expression x%y.

(since C++11)


x, y - integer values

Return value

If both the remainder and the quotient can be represented as objects of the corresponding type (int, long, long long, std::imaxdiv_t, respectively), returns both as an object of type std::div_t, std::ldiv_t, std::lldiv_t, std::imaxdiv_t defined as follows:


struct div_t { int quot; int rem; };


struct div_t { int rem; int quot; };


struct ldiv_t { long quot; long rem; };


struct ldiv_t { long rem; long quot; };


struct lldiv_t { long long quot; long long rem; };


struct lldiv_t { long long rem; long long quot; };


struct imaxdiv_t { std::intmax_t quot; std::intmax_t rem; };


struct imaxdiv_t { std::intmax_t rem; std::intmax_t quot; };

If either the remainder or the quotient cannot be represented, the behavior is undefined.


Until C++11, the rounding direction of the quotient and the sign of the remainder in the built-in division and remainder operators was implementation-defined if either of the operands was negative, but it was well-defined in std::div.

On many platforms, a single CPU instruction obtains both the quotient and the remainder, and this function may leverage that, although compilers are generally able to merge nearby / and % where suitable.


#include <string>
#include <cmath>
#include <cstdlib>
#include <iostream>
std::string itoa(int n, int base)
    std::string buf;
    std::div_t dv{}; dv.quot = n;
    do {
        dv = std::div(dv.quot, base);
        buf += "0123456789abcdef"[std::abs(dv.rem)];  // string literals are arrays
    } while(dv.quot);
    if(n<0) buf += '-';
    return {buf.rbegin(), buf.rend()};
int main()
    std::cout << itoa(12345, 10) << '\n'
              << itoa(-12345, 10) << '\n'
              << itoa(65535, 16) << '\n';



See also

remainder of the floating point division operation
signed remainder of the division operation
signed remainder as well as the three last bits of the division operation

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