Defined in header `<cmath>` | ||
---|---|---|

float fma ( float x, float y, float z ); float fmaf( float x, float y, float z ); | (1) | (since C++11) |

double fma ( double x, double y, double z ); | (2) | (since C++11) |

long double fma ( long double x, long double y, long double z ); long double fmal( long double x, long double y, long double z ); | (3) | (since C++11) |

Promoted fma ( Arithmetic1 x, Arithmetic2 y, Arithmetic3 z ); | (4) | (since C++11) |

#define FP_FAST_FMA /* implementation-defined */ | (5) | (since C++11) |

#define FP_FAST_FMAF /* implementation-defined */ | (6) | (since C++11) |

#define FP_FAST_FMAL /* implementation-defined */ | (7) | (since C++11) |

1-3) Computes

`(x*y) + z`

as if to infinite precision and rounded only once to fit the result type.
4) A set of overloads or a function template for all combinations of arguments of arithmetic type not covered by 1-3). If any argument has integral type, it is cast to

`double`

. If any other argument is `long double`

, then the return type is `long double`

, otherwise it is `double`

.
5-7) If the macro constants

`FP_FAST_FMAF`

, `FP_FAST_FMA`

, or `FP_FAST_FMAL`

are defined, the function `std::fma`

evaluates faster (in addition to being more precise) than the expression `x*y+z`

for `float`

, `double`

, and `long double`

arguments, respectively. If defined, these macros evaluate to integer `1`

.x, y, z | - | values of floating-point or integral types |

If successful, returns the value of `(x*y) + z`

as if calculated to infinite precision and rounded once to fit the result type (or, alternatively, calculated as a single ternary floating-point operation).

If a range error due to overflow occurs, `±HUGE_VAL`

, `±HUGE_VALF`

, or `±HUGE_VALL`

is returned.

If a range error due to underflow occurs, the correct value (after rounding) is returned.

Errors are reported as specified in `math_errhandling`

.

If the implementation supports IEEE floating-point arithmetic (IEC 60559),

- If x is zero and y is infinite or if x is infinite and y is zero, and z is not a NaN, then NaN is returned and
`FE_INVALID`

is raised - If x is zero and y is infinite or if x is infinite and y is zero, and z is a NaN, then NaN is returned and
`FE_INVALID`

may be raised - If x*y is an exact infinity and z is an infinity with the opposite sign, NaN is returned and
`FE_INVALID`

is raised - If x or y are NaN, NaN is returned
- If z is NaN, and x*y aren't 0*Inf or Inf*0, then NaN is returned (without FE_INVALID)

This operation is commonly implemented in hardware as fused multiply-add CPU instruction. If supported by hardware, the appropriate `FP_FAST_FMA*`

macros are expected to be defined, but many implementations make use of the CPU instruction even when the macros are not defined.

POSIX additionally specifies that the situations specified to return `FE_INVALID`

are domain errors.

Due to its infinite intermediate precision, `fma`

is a common building block of other correctly-rounded mathematical operations, such as `std::sqrt`

or even the division (where not provided by the CPU, e.g. Itanium).

As with all floating-point expressions, the expression `(x*y) + z`

may be compiled as a fused multiply-add unless the #pragma `STDC FP_CONTRACT`

is off.

#include <iostream> #include <iomanip> #include <cmath> #include <cfenv> #pragma STDC FENV_ACCESS ON int main() { // demo the difference between fma and built-in operators double in = 0.1; std::cout << "0.1 double is " << std::setprecision(23) << in << " (" << std::hexfloat << in << std::defaultfloat << ")\n" << "0.1*10 is 1.0000000000000000555112 (0x8.0000000000002p-3), " << "or 1.0 if rounded to double\n"; double expr_result = 0.1 * 10 - 1; double fma_result = fma(0.1, 10, -1); std::cout << "0.1 * 10 - 1 = " << expr_result << " : 1 subtracted after intermediate rounding\n" << "fma(0.1, 10, -1) = " << std::setprecision(6) << fma_result << " (" << std::hexfloat << fma_result << std::defaultfloat << ")\n\n"; // fma is used in double-double arithmetic double high = 0.1 * 10; double low = fma(0.1, 10, -high); std::cout << "in double-double arithmetic, 0.1 * 10 is representable as " << high << " + " << low << "\n\n"; // error handling std::feclearexcept(FE_ALL_EXCEPT); std::cout << "fma(+Inf, 10, -Inf) = " << std::fma(INFINITY, 10, -INFINITY) << '\n'; if(std::fetestexcept(FE_INVALID)) std::cout << " FE_INVALID raised\n"; }

Possible output:

0.1 double is 0.10000000000000000555112 (0x1.999999999999ap-4) 0.1*10 is 1.0000000000000000555112 (0x8.0000000000002p-3), or 1.0 if rounded to double 0.1 * 10 - 1 = 0 : 1 subtracted after intermediate rounding fma(0.1, 10, -1) = 5.55112e-17 (0x1p-54) in double-double arithmetic, 0.1 * 10 is representable as 1 + 5.55112e-17 fma(+Inf, 10, -Inf) = -nan FE_INVALID raised

(C++11)(C++11)(C++11) | signed remainder of the division operation (function) |

(C++11)(C++11)(C++11) | signed remainder as well as the three last bits of the division operation (function) |

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