Defined in header <variant>
struct monostate { };
(since C++17)

Unit type intended for use as a well-behaved empty alternative in std::variant. In particular, a variant of non-default-constructible types may list std::monostate as its first alternative: this makes the variant itself default-constructible.

Member functions

(implicitly declared)
trivial implicit default/copy/move constructor
(public member function)
(implicitly declared)
trivial implicit destructor
(public member function)
(implicitly declared)
trivial implicit copy/move assignment
(public member function)

Non-member functions

std::operator==, !=, <, <=, >, >=, <=>(std::monostate)

constexpr bool operator==(monostate, monostate) noexcept { return true; }
(since C++17)
constexpr bool operator!=(monostate, monostate) noexcept { return false; }
constexpr bool operator<(monostate, monostate) noexcept { return false; }
constexpr bool operator>(monostate, monostate) noexcept { return false; }
constexpr bool operator<=(monostate, monostate) noexcept { return true; }
constexpr bool operator>=(monostate, monostate) noexcept { return true; }
(since C++17)
(until C++20)
constexpr std::strong_ordering operator<=>(monostate, monostate) noexcept
{ return std::strong_ordering::equal; }
(since C++20)

All instances of std::monostate compare equal.

The <, <=, >, >=, and != operators are synthesized from operator<=> and operator== respectively.

(since C++20)

Helper classes


template <> struct std::hash<monostate>;

Specializes the std::hash algorithm for std::monostate.


#include <variant>
#include <iostream>
#include <cassert>
struct S
    S(int i) : i(i) {}
    int i;
int main() {
    // Without the monostate type this declaration will fail.
    // This is because S is not default-constructible.
    std::variant<std::monostate, S> var; 
    assert(var.index() == 0);
    try {
        std::get<S>(var); // throws! We need to assign a value
    catch(const std::bad_variant_access& e) {
        std::cout << e.what() << '\n';
    var = 12; 
    std::cout << std::get<S>(var).i << '\n';

Possible output:

std::get: wrong index for variant

See also

constructs the variant object
(public member function)

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