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/Crystal 0.31

if var.is_a?(...)

If an if's condition is an is_a? test, the type of a variable is guaranteed to be restricted by that type in the then branch.

if a.is_a?(String)
  # here a is a String
end

if b.is_a?(Number)
  # here b is a Number
end

Additionally, in the else branch the type of the variable is guaranteed to not be restricted by that type:

a = some_condition ? 1 : "hello"
# a : Int32 | String

if a.is_a?(Number)
  # a : Int32
else
  # a : String
end

Note that you can use any type as an is_a? test, like abstract classes and modules.

The above also works if there are ands (&&) in the condition:

if a.is_a?(String) && b.is_a?(Number)
  # here a is a String and b is a Number
end

The above doesn’t work with instance variables or class variables. To work with these, first assign them to a variable:

if @a.is_a?(String)
  # here @a is not guaranteed to be a String
end

a = @a
if a.is_a?(String)
  # here a is guaranteed to be a String
end

# A bit shorter:
if (a = @a).is_a?(String)
  # here a is guaranteed to be a String
end

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https://crystal-lang.org/docs/syntax_and_semantics/if_varis_a.html