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orphans

The orphans CSS property sets the minimum number of lines in a block container that must be shown at the bottom of a page, region, or column.

/* <integer> values */
orphans: 2;
orphans: 3;

/* Global values */
orphans: inherit;
orphans: initial;
orphans: unset;

In typography, an orphan is the first line of a paragraph that appears alone at the bottom of a page. (The paragraph continues on a following page.)

Syntax

Values

<integer>
The minimum number of lines that can stay by themselves at the bottom of a fragment before a fragmentation break. The value must be positive.

Formal definition

Initial value 2
Applies to block container elements
Inherited yes
Computed value as specified
Animation type discrete

Formal syntax

<integer>

Examples

Setting a minimum orphan size of three lines

HTML

<div>
  <p>This is the first paragraph containing some text.</p>
  <p>This is the second paragraph containing some more text than the first one. It is used to demonstrate how orphans work.</p>
  <p>This is the third paragraph. It has a little bit more text than the first one.</p>
</div>

CSS

div {
  background-color: #8cffa0;
  height: 150px;
  columns: 3;
  orphans: 3;
}

p {
  background-color: #8ca0ff;
}

p:first-child {
  margin-top: 0;
}

Result

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
CSS Fragmentation Module Level 3
The definition of 'orphans' in that specification.
Candidate Recommendation Extends orphans to apply to any type of fragment, including pages, regions, or columns.
CSS Level 2 (Revision 1)
The definition of 'orphans' in that specification.
Recommendation Initial definition.

Browser compatibilityUpdate compatibility data on GitHub

Desktop
Chrome Edge Firefox Internet Explorer Opera Safari
orphans 25 12 No 8 9.2 1.3
Mobile
Android webview Chrome for Android Firefox for Android Opera for Android Safari on iOS Samsung Internet
orphans ≤37 25 No 14 1 1.5

See also

© 2005–2020 Mozilla and individual contributors.
Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License v2.5 or later.
https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/CSS/orphans