The spatial lookups in this section are available for GeometryField
and RasterField
.
For an introduction, see the spatial lookups introduction. For an overview of what lookups are compatible with a particular spatial backend, refer to the spatial lookup compatibility table.
All examples in the reference below are given for geometry fields and inputs, but the lookups can be used the same way with rasters on both sides. Whenever a lookup doesn’t support raster input, the input is automatically converted to a geometry where necessary using the ST_Polygon function. See also the introduction to raster lookups.
The database operators used by the lookups can be divided into three categories:
N
: the operator accepts rasters natively on both sides of the lookup, and raster input can be mixed with geometry inputs.B
: the operator supports rasters only if both sides of the lookup receive raster inputs. Raster data is automatically converted to geometries for mixed lookups.C
. The lookup does not have native raster support, all raster data is automatically converted to geometries.The examples below show the SQL equivalent for the lookups in the different types of raster support. The same pattern applies to all spatial lookups.
Case | Lookup | SQL Equivalent |
---|---|---|
N, B | rast__contains=rst | ST_Contains(rast, rst) |
N, B | rast__1__contains=(rst, 2) | ST_Contains(rast, 1, rst, 2) |
B, C | rast__contains=geom | ST_Contains(ST_Polygon(rast), geom) |
B, C | rast__1__contains=geom | ST_Contains(ST_Polygon(rast, 1), geom) |
B, C | poly__contains=rst | ST_Contains(poly, ST_Polygon(rst)) |
B, C | poly__contains=(rst, 1) | ST_Contains(poly, ST_Polygon(rst, 1)) |
C | rast__crosses=rst | ST_Crosses(ST_Polygon(rast), ST_Polygon(rst)) |
C | rast__1__crosses=(rst, 2) | ST_Crosses(ST_Polygon(rast, 1), ST_Polygon(rst, 2)) |
C | rast__crosses=geom | ST_Crosses(ST_Polygon(rast), geom) |
C | poly__crosses=rst | ST_Crosses(poly, ST_Polygon(rst)) |
Spatial lookups with rasters are only supported for PostGIS backends (denominated as PGRaster in this section).
bbcontains
Availability: PostGIS, MariaDB, MySQL, SpatiaLite, PGRaster (Native)
Tests if the geometry or raster field’s bounding box completely contains the lookup geometry’s bounding box.
Example:
Zipcode.objects.filter(poly__bbcontains=geom)
Backend | SQL Equivalent |
---|---|
PostGIS | poly ~ geom |
MariaDB | MBRContains(poly, geom) |
MySQL | MBRContains(poly, geom) |
SpatiaLite | MbrContains(poly, geom) |
bboverlaps
Availability: PostGIS, MariaDB, MySQL, SpatiaLite, PGRaster (Native)
Tests if the geometry field’s bounding box overlaps the lookup geometry’s bounding box.
Example:
Zipcode.objects.filter(poly__bboverlaps=geom)
Backend | SQL Equivalent |
---|---|
PostGIS | poly && geom |
MariaDB | MBROverlaps(poly, geom) |
MySQL | MBROverlaps(poly, geom) |
SpatiaLite | MbrOverlaps(poly, geom) |
contained
Availability: PostGIS, MariaDB, MySQL, SpatiaLite, PGRaster (Native)
Tests if the geometry field’s bounding box is completely contained by the lookup geometry’s bounding box.
Example:
Zipcode.objects.filter(poly__contained=geom)
Backend | SQL Equivalent |
---|---|
PostGIS | poly @ geom |
MariaDB | MBRWithin(poly, geom) |
MySQL | MBRWithin(poly, geom) |
SpatiaLite | MbrWithin(poly, geom) |
contains
Availability: PostGIS, Oracle, MariaDB, MySQL, SpatiaLite, PGRaster (Bilateral)
Tests if the geometry field spatially contains the lookup geometry.
Example:
Zipcode.objects.filter(poly__contains=geom)
Backend | SQL Equivalent |
---|---|
PostGIS | ST_Contains(poly, geom) |
Oracle | SDO_CONTAINS(poly, geom) |
MariaDB | ST_Contains(poly, geom) |
MySQL | ST_Contains(poly, geom) |
SpatiaLite | Contains(poly, geom) |
In older versions, MySQL uses MBRContains
and operates only on bounding boxes.
contains_properly
Availability: PostGIS, PGRaster (Bilateral)
Returns true if the lookup geometry intersects the interior of the geometry field, but not the boundary (or exterior).
Example:
Zipcode.objects.filter(poly__contains_properly=geom)
Backend | SQL Equivalent |
---|---|
PostGIS | ST_ContainsProperly(poly, geom) |
coveredby
Availability: PostGIS, Oracle, PGRaster (Bilateral), SpatiaLite
Tests if no point in the geometry field is outside the lookup geometry. [3]
Example:
Zipcode.objects.filter(poly__coveredby=geom)
Backend | SQL Equivalent |
---|---|
PostGIS | ST_CoveredBy(poly, geom) |
Oracle | SDO_COVEREDBY(poly, geom) |
SpatiaLite | CoveredBy(poly, geom) |
covers
Availability: PostGIS, Oracle, PGRaster (Bilateral), SpatiaLite
Tests if no point in the lookup geometry is outside the geometry field. [3]
Example:
Zipcode.objects.filter(poly__covers=geom)
Backend | SQL Equivalent |
---|---|
PostGIS | ST_Covers(poly, geom) |
Oracle | SDO_COVERS(poly, geom) |
SpatiaLite | Covers(poly, geom) |
crosses
Availability: PostGIS, MariaDB, MySQL, SpatiaLite, PGRaster (Conversion)
Tests if the geometry field spatially crosses the lookup geometry.
Example:
Zipcode.objects.filter(poly__crosses=geom)
Backend | SQL Equivalent |
---|---|
PostGIS | ST_Crosses(poly, geom) |
MariaDB | ST_Crosses(poly, geom) |
MySQL | ST_Crosses(poly, geom) |
SpatiaLite | Crosses(poly, geom) |
MySQL support was added.
disjoint
Availability: PostGIS, Oracle, MariaDB, MySQL, SpatiaLite, PGRaster (Bilateral)
Tests if the geometry field is spatially disjoint from the lookup geometry.
Example:
Zipcode.objects.filter(poly__disjoint=geom)
Backend | SQL Equivalent |
---|---|
PostGIS | ST_Disjoint(poly, geom) |
Oracle | SDO_GEOM.RELATE(poly, 'DISJOINT', geom, 0.05) |
MariaDB | ST_Disjoint(poly, geom) |
MySQL | ST_Disjoint(poly, geom) |
SpatiaLite | Disjoint(poly, geom) |
In older versions, MySQL uses MBRDisjoint
and operates only on bounding boxes.
equals
Availability: PostGIS, Oracle, MariaDB, MySQL, SpatiaLite, PGRaster (Conversion)
Tests if the geometry field is spatially equal to the lookup geometry.
Example:
Zipcode.objects.filter(poly__equals=geom)
Backend | SQL Equivalent |
---|---|
PostGIS | ST_Equals(poly, geom) |
Oracle | SDO_EQUAL(poly, geom) |
MariaDB | ST_Equals(poly, geom) |
MySQL | ST_Equals(poly, geom) |
SpatiaLite | Equals(poly, geom) |
In older versions, MySQL uses MBREquals
and operates only on bounding boxes.
exact
, same_as
Availability: PostGIS, Oracle, MariaDB, MySQL, SpatiaLite, PGRaster (Bilateral)
Tests if the geometry field is “equal” to the lookup geometry. On Oracle, MySQL, and SpatiaLite, it tests spatial equality, while on PostGIS it tests equality of bounding boxes.
Example:
Zipcode.objects.filter(poly=geom)
Backend | SQL Equivalent |
---|---|
PostGIS | poly ~= geom |
Oracle | SDO_EQUAL(poly, geom) |
MariaDB | ST_Equals(poly, geom) |
MySQL | ST_Equals(poly, geom) |
SpatiaLite | Equals(poly, geom) |
In older versions, MySQL uses MBREquals
and operates only on bounding boxes.
intersects
Availability: PostGIS, Oracle, MariaDB, MySQL, SpatiaLite, PGRaster (Bilateral)
Tests if the geometry field spatially intersects the lookup geometry.
Example:
Zipcode.objects.filter(poly__intersects=geom)
Backend | SQL Equivalent |
---|---|
PostGIS | ST_Intersects(poly, geom) |
Oracle | SDO_OVERLAPBDYINTERSECT(poly, geom) |
MariaDB | ST_Intersects(poly, geom) |
MySQL | ST_Intersects(poly, geom) |
SpatiaLite | Intersects(poly, geom) |
In older versions, MySQL uses MBRIntersects
and operates only on bounding boxes.
isvalid
Availability: MySQL (≥ 5.7.5), PostGIS, Oracle, SpatiaLite
Tests if the geometry is valid.
Example:
Zipcode.objects.filter(poly__isvalid=True)
Backend | SQL Equivalent |
---|---|
MySQL, PostGIS, SpatiaLite | ST_IsValid(poly) |
Oracle | SDO_GEOM.VALIDATE_GEOMETRY_WITH_CONTEXT(poly, 0.05) = 'TRUE' |
overlaps
Availability: PostGIS, Oracle, MariaDB, MySQL, SpatiaLite, PGRaster (Bilateral)
Tests if the geometry field spatially overlaps the lookup geometry.
Backend | SQL Equivalent |
---|---|
PostGIS | ST_Overlaps(poly, geom) |
Oracle | SDO_OVERLAPS(poly, geom) |
MariaDB | ST_Overlaps(poly, geom) |
MySQL | ST_Overlaps(poly, geom) |
SpatiaLite | Overlaps(poly, geom) |
In older versions, MySQL uses MBROverlaps
and operates only on bounding boxes.
relate
Availability: PostGIS, MariaDB, Oracle, SpatiaLite, PGRaster (Conversion)
Tests if the geometry field is spatially related to the lookup geometry by the values given in the given pattern. This lookup requires a tuple parameter, (geom, pattern)
; the form of pattern
will depend on the spatial backend:
On these spatial backends the intersection pattern is a string comprising nine characters, which define intersections between the interior, boundary, and exterior of the geometry field and the lookup geometry. The intersection pattern matrix may only use the following characters: 1
, 2
, T
, F
, or *
. This lookup type allows users to “fine tune” a specific geometric relationship consistent with the DE-9IM model. [1]
Geometry example:
# A tuple lookup parameter is used to specify the geometry and # the intersection pattern (the pattern here is for 'contains'). Zipcode.objects.filter(poly__relate=(geom, 'T*T***FF*'))
PostGIS and MariaDB SQL equivalent:
SELECT ... WHERE ST_Relate(poly, geom, 'T*T***FF*')
SpatiaLite SQL equivalent:
SELECT ... WHERE Relate(poly, geom, 'T*T***FF*')
Raster example:
Zipcode.objects.filter(poly__relate=(rast, 1, 'T*T***FF*')) Zipcode.objects.filter(rast__2__relate=(rast, 1, 'T*T***FF*'))
PostGIS SQL equivalent:
SELECT ... WHERE ST_Relate(poly, ST_Polygon(rast, 1), 'T*T***FF*') SELECT ... WHERE ST_Relate(ST_Polygon(rast, 2), ST_Polygon(rast, 1), 'T*T***FF*')
MariaDB support was added.
Here the relation pattern is comprised of at least one of the nine relation strings: TOUCH
, OVERLAPBDYDISJOINT
, OVERLAPBDYINTERSECT
, EQUAL
, INSIDE
, COVEREDBY
, CONTAINS
, COVERS
, ON
, and ANYINTERACT
. Multiple strings may be combined with the logical Boolean operator OR, for example, 'inside+touch'
. [2] The relation strings are case-insensitive.
Example:
Zipcode.objects.filter(poly__relate=(geom, 'anyinteract'))
Oracle SQL equivalent:
SELECT ... WHERE SDO_RELATE(poly, geom, 'anyinteract')
touches
Availability: PostGIS, Oracle, MariaDB, MySQL, SpatiaLite
Tests if the geometry field spatially touches the lookup geometry.
Example:
Zipcode.objects.filter(poly__touches=geom)
Backend | SQL Equivalent |
---|---|
PostGIS | ST_Touches(poly, geom) |
MariaDB | ST_Touches(poly, geom) |
MySQL | ST_Touches(poly, geom) |
Oracle | SDO_TOUCH(poly, geom) |
SpatiaLite | Touches(poly, geom) |
In older versions, MySQL uses MBRTouches
and operates only on bounding boxes.
within
Availability: PostGIS, Oracle, MariaDB, MySQL, SpatiaLite, PGRaster (Bilateral)
Tests if the geometry field is spatially within the lookup geometry.
Example:
Zipcode.objects.filter(poly__within=geom)
Backend | SQL Equivalent |
---|---|
PostGIS | ST_Within(poly, geom) |
MariaDB | ST_Within(poly, geom) |
MySQL | ST_Within(poly, geom) |
Oracle | SDO_INSIDE(poly, geom) |
SpatiaLite | Within(poly, geom) |
In older versions, MySQL uses MBRWithin
and operates only on bounding boxes.
left
Availability: PostGIS, PGRaster (Conversion)
Tests if the geometry field’s bounding box is strictly to the left of the lookup geometry’s bounding box.
Example:
Zipcode.objects.filter(poly__left=geom)
PostGIS equivalent:
SELECT ... WHERE poly << geom
right
Availability: PostGIS, PGRaster (Conversion)
Tests if the geometry field’s bounding box is strictly to the right of the lookup geometry’s bounding box.
Example:
Zipcode.objects.filter(poly__right=geom)
PostGIS equivalent:
SELECT ... WHERE poly >> geom
overlaps_left
Availability: PostGIS, PGRaster (Bilateral)
Tests if the geometry field’s bounding box overlaps or is to the left of the lookup geometry’s bounding box.
Example:
Zipcode.objects.filter(poly__overlaps_left=geom)
PostGIS equivalent:
SELECT ... WHERE poly &< geom
overlaps_right
Availability: PostGIS, PGRaster (Bilateral)
Tests if the geometry field’s bounding box overlaps or is to the right of the lookup geometry’s bounding box.
Example:
Zipcode.objects.filter(poly__overlaps_right=geom)
PostGIS equivalent:
SELECT ... WHERE poly &> geom
overlaps_above
Availability: PostGIS, PGRaster (Conversion)
Tests if the geometry field’s bounding box overlaps or is above the lookup geometry’s bounding box.
Example:
Zipcode.objects.filter(poly__overlaps_above=geom)
PostGIS equivalent:
SELECT ... WHERE poly |&> geom
overlaps_below
Availability: PostGIS, PGRaster (Conversion)
Tests if the geometry field’s bounding box overlaps or is below the lookup geometry’s bounding box.
Example:
Zipcode.objects.filter(poly__overlaps_below=geom)
PostGIS equivalent:
SELECT ... WHERE poly &<| geom
strictly_above
Availability: PostGIS, PGRaster (Conversion)
Tests if the geometry field’s bounding box is strictly above the lookup geometry’s bounding box.
Example:
Zipcode.objects.filter(poly__strictly_above=geom)
PostGIS equivalent:
SELECT ... WHERE poly |>> geom
strictly_below
Availability: PostGIS, PGRaster (Conversion)
Tests if the geometry field’s bounding box is strictly below the lookup geometry’s bounding box.
Example:
Zipcode.objects.filter(poly__strictly_below=geom)
PostGIS equivalent:
SELECT ... WHERE poly <<| geom
Availability: PostGIS, Oracle, MariaDB, MySQL, SpatiaLite, PGRaster (Native)
For an overview on performing distance queries, please refer to the distance queries introduction.
Distance lookups take the following form:
<field>__<distance lookup>=(<geometry/raster>, <distance value>[, 'spheroid']) <field>__<distance lookup>=(<raster>, <band_index>, <distance value>[, 'spheroid']) <field>__<band_index>__<distance lookup>=(<raster>, <band_index>, <distance value>[, 'spheroid'])
The value passed into a distance lookup is a tuple; the first two values are mandatory, and are the geometry to calculate distances to, and a distance value (either a number in units of the field, a Distance
object, or a query expression). To pass a band index to the lookup, use a 3-tuple where the second entry is the band index.
On every distance lookup except dwithin
, an optional element, 'spheroid'
, may be included to use the more accurate spheroid distance calculation functions on fields with a geodetic coordinate system.
On PostgreSQL, the 'spheroid'
option uses ST_DistanceSpheroid instead of ST_DistanceSphere. The simpler ST_Distance function is used with projected coordinate systems. Rasters are converted to geometries for spheroid based lookups.
distance_gt
Returns models where the distance to the geometry field from the lookup geometry is greater than the given distance value.
Example:
Zipcode.objects.filter(poly__distance_gt=(geom, D(m=5)))
Backend | SQL Equivalent |
---|---|
PostGIS | ST_Distance/ST_Distance_Sphere(poly, geom) > 5 |
MariaDB | ST_Distance(poly, geom) > 5 |
MySQL | ST_Distance(poly, geom) > 5 |
Oracle | SDO_GEOM.SDO_DISTANCE(poly, geom, 0.05) > 5 |
SpatiaLite | Distance(poly, geom) > 5 |
distance_gte
Returns models where the distance to the geometry field from the lookup geometry is greater than or equal to the given distance value.
Example:
Zipcode.objects.filter(poly__distance_gte=(geom, D(m=5)))
Backend | SQL Equivalent |
---|---|
PostGIS | ST_Distance/ST_Distance_Sphere(poly, geom) >= 5 |
MariaDB | ST_Distance(poly, geom) >= 5 |
MySQL | ST_Distance(poly, geom) >= 5 |
Oracle | SDO_GEOM.SDO_DISTANCE(poly, geom, 0.05) >= 5 |
SpatiaLite | Distance(poly, geom) >= 5 |
distance_lt
Returns models where the distance to the geometry field from the lookup geometry is less than the given distance value.
Example:
Zipcode.objects.filter(poly__distance_lt=(geom, D(m=5)))
Backend | SQL Equivalent |
---|---|
PostGIS | ST_Distance/ST_Distance_Sphere(poly, geom) < 5 |
MariaDB | ST_Distance(poly, geom) < 5 |
MySQL | ST_Distance(poly, geom) < 5 |
Oracle | SDO_GEOM.SDO_DISTANCE(poly, geom, 0.05) < 5 |
SpatiaLite | Distance(poly, geom) < 5 |
distance_lte
Returns models where the distance to the geometry field from the lookup geometry is less than or equal to the given distance value.
Example:
Zipcode.objects.filter(poly__distance_lte=(geom, D(m=5)))
Backend | SQL Equivalent |
---|---|
PostGIS | ST_Distance/ST_Distance_Sphere(poly, geom) <= 5 |
MariaDB | ST_Distance(poly, geom) <= 5 |
MySQL | ST_Distance(poly, geom) <= 5 |
Oracle | SDO_GEOM.SDO_DISTANCE(poly, geom, 0.05) <= 5 |
SpatiaLite | Distance(poly, geom) <= 5 |
dwithin
Returns models where the distance to the geometry field from the lookup geometry are within the given distance from one another. Note that you can only provide Distance
objects if the targeted geometries are in a projected system. For geographic geometries, you should use units of the geometry field (e.g. degrees for WGS84
) .
Example:
Zipcode.objects.filter(poly__dwithin=(geom, D(m=5)))
Backend | SQL Equivalent |
---|---|
PostGIS | ST_DWithin(poly, geom, 5) |
Oracle | SDO_WITHIN_DISTANCE(poly, geom, 5) |
SpatiaLite | PtDistWithin(poly, geom, 5) |
Django provides some GIS-specific aggregate functions. For details on how to use these aggregate functions, see the topic guide on aggregation.
Keyword Argument | Description |
---|---|
tolerance | This keyword is for Oracle only. It is for the tolerance value used by the SDOAGGRTYPE procedure; the Oracle documentation has more details. |
Example:
>>> from django.contrib.gis.db.models import Extent, Union >>> WorldBorder.objects.aggregate(Extent('mpoly'), Union('mpoly'))
Collect
class Collect(geo_field)
Availability: PostGIS, SpatiaLite
Returns a GEOMETRYCOLLECTION
or a MULTI
geometry object from the geometry column. This is analogous to a simplified version of the Union
aggregate, except it can be several orders of magnitude faster than performing a union because it rolls up geometries into a collection or multi object, not caring about dissolving boundaries.
Extent
class Extent(geo_field)
Availability: PostGIS, Oracle, SpatiaLite
Returns the extent of all geo_field
in the QuerySet
as a four-tuple, comprising the lower left coordinate and the upper right coordinate.
Example:
>>> qs = City.objects.filter(name__in=('Houston', 'Dallas')).aggregate(Extent('poly')) >>> print(qs['poly__extent']) (-96.8016128540039, 29.7633724212646, -95.3631439208984, 32.782058715820)
Extent3D
class Extent3D(geo_field)
Availability: PostGIS
Returns the 3D extent of all geo_field
in the QuerySet
as a six-tuple, comprising the lower left coordinate and upper right coordinate (each with x, y, and z coordinates).
Example:
>>> qs = City.objects.filter(name__in=('Houston', 'Dallas')).aggregate(Extent3D('poly')) >>> print(qs['poly__extent3d']) (-96.8016128540039, 29.7633724212646, 0, -95.3631439208984, 32.782058715820, 0)
MakeLine
class MakeLine(geo_field)
Availability: PostGIS, SpatiaLite
Returns a LineString
constructed from the point field geometries in the QuerySet
. Currently, ordering the queryset has no effect.
Example:
>>> qs = City.objects.filter(name__in=('Houston', 'Dallas')).aggregate(MakeLine('poly')) >>> print(qs['poly__makeline']) LINESTRING (-95.3631510000000020 29.7633739999999989, -96.8016109999999941 32.7820570000000018)
Union
class Union(geo_field)
Availability: PostGIS, Oracle, SpatiaLite
This method returns a GEOSGeometry
object comprising the union of every geometry in the queryset. Please note that use of Union
is processor intensive and may take a significant amount of time on large querysets.
Note
If the computation time for using this method is too expensive, consider using Collect
instead.
Example:
>>> u = Zipcode.objects.aggregate(Union(poly)) # This may take a long time. >>> u = Zipcode.objects.filter(poly__within=bbox).aggregate(Union(poly)) # A more sensible approach.
[1] | See OpenGIS Simple Feature Specification For SQL, at Ch. 2.1.13.2, p. 2-13 (The Dimensionally Extended Nine-Intersection Model). |
[2] | See SDO_RELATE documentation, from the Oracle Spatial and Graph Developer’s Guide. |
[3] | (1, 2) For an explanation of this routine, read Quirks of the “Contains” Spatial Predicate by Martin Davis (a PostGIS developer). |
© Django Software Foundation and individual contributors
Licensed under the BSD License.
https://docs.djangoproject.com/en/3.1/ref/contrib/gis/geoquerysets/