This Quickstart guide shows you how to use Docker Compose to set up and run a Rails/PostgreSQL app. Before starting, install Compose.
Start by setting up the files needed to build the app. App will run inside a Docker container containing its dependencies. Defining dependencies is done using a file called
Dockerfile. To begin with, the Dockerfile consists of:
FROM ruby:2.5 RUN apt-get update -qq && apt-get install -y nodejs postgresql-client RUN mkdir /myapp WORKDIR /myapp COPY Gemfile /myapp/Gemfile COPY Gemfile.lock /myapp/Gemfile.lock RUN bundle install COPY . /myapp # Add a script to be executed every time the container starts. COPY entrypoint.sh /usr/bin/ RUN chmod +x /usr/bin/entrypoint.sh ENTRYPOINT ["entrypoint.sh"] EXPOSE 3000 # Start the main process. CMD ["rails", "server", "-b", "0.0.0.0"]
That’ll put your application code inside an image that builds a container with Ruby, Bundler and all your dependencies inside it. For more information on how to write Dockerfiles, see the Docker user guide and the Dockerfile reference.
Next, create a bootstrap
Gemfile which just loads Rails. It’ll be overwritten in a moment by
source 'https://rubygems.org' gem 'rails', '~>5'
Create an empty
Gemfile.lock to build our
Next, provide an entrypoint script to fix a Rails-specific issue that prevents the server from restarting when a certain
server.pid file pre-exists. This script will be executed every time the container gets started.
entrypoint.sh consists of:
#!/bin/bash set -e # Remove a potentially pre-existing server.pid for Rails. rm -f /myapp/tmp/pids/server.pid # Then exec the container's main process (what's set as CMD in the Dockerfile). exec "[email protected]"
docker-compose.yml is where the magic happens. This file describes the services that comprise your app (a database and a web app), how to get each one’s Docker image (the database just runs on a pre-made PostgreSQL image, and the web app is built from the current directory), and the configuration needed to link them together and expose the web app’s port.
version: '3' services: db: image: postgres volumes: - ./tmp/db:/var/lib/postgresql/data web: build: . command: bash -c "rm -f tmp/pids/server.pid && bundle exec rails s -p 3000 -b '0.0.0.0'" volumes: - .:/myapp ports: - "3000:3000" depends_on: - db
Tip: You can use either a
.yamlextension for this file.
With those files in place, you can now generate the Rails skeleton app using docker-compose run:
docker-compose run web rails new . --force --no-deps --database=postgresql
First, Compose builds the image for the
web service using the
Dockerfile. Then it runs
rails new inside a new container, using that image. Once it’s done, you should have generated a fresh app.
List the files.
$ ls -l total 64 -rw-r--r-- 1 vmb staff 222 Jun 7 12:05 Dockerfile -rw-r--r-- 1 vmb staff 1738 Jun 7 12:09 Gemfile -rw-r--r-- 1 vmb staff 4297 Jun 7 12:09 Gemfile.lock -rw-r--r-- 1 vmb staff 374 Jun 7 12:09 README.md -rw-r--r-- 1 vmb staff 227 Jun 7 12:09 Rakefile drwxr-xr-x 10 vmb staff 340 Jun 7 12:09 app drwxr-xr-x 8 vmb staff 272 Jun 7 12:09 bin drwxr-xr-x 14 vmb staff 476 Jun 7 12:09 config -rw-r--r-- 1 vmb staff 130 Jun 7 12:09 config.ru drwxr-xr-x 3 vmb staff 102 Jun 7 12:09 db -rw-r--r-- 1 vmb staff 211 Jun 7 12:06 docker-compose.yml -rw-r--r-- 1 vmb staff 184 Jun 7 12:08 entrypoint.sh drwxr-xr-x 4 vmb staff 136 Jun 7 12:09 lib drwxr-xr-x 3 vmb staff 102 Jun 7 12:09 log -rw-r--r-- 1 vmb staff 63 Jun 7 12:09 package.json drwxr-xr-x 9 vmb staff 306 Jun 7 12:09 public drwxr-xr-x 9 vmb staff 306 Jun 7 12:09 test drwxr-xr-x 4 vmb staff 136 Jun 7 12:09 tmp drwxr-xr-x 3 vmb staff 102 Jun 7 12:09 vendor
If you are running Docker on Linux, the files
rails new created are owned by root. This happens because the container runs as the root user. If this is the case, change the ownership of the new files.
sudo chown -R $USER:$USER .
If you are running Docker on Mac or Windows, you should already have ownership of all files, including those generated by
Now that you’ve got a new Gemfile, you need to build the image again. (This, and changes to the
Gemfile or the Dockerfile, should be the only times you’ll need to rebuild.)
The app is now bootable, but you’re not quite there yet. By default, Rails expects a database to be running on
localhost - so you need to point it at the
db container instead. You also need to change the database and username to align with the defaults set by the
Replace the contents of
config/database.yml with the following:
default: &default adapter: postgresql encoding: unicode host: db username: postgres password: pool: 5 development: <<: *default database: myapp_development test: <<: *default database: myapp_test
You can now boot the app with docker-compose up:
If all’s well, you should see some PostgreSQL output.
rails_db_1 is up-to-date Creating rails_web_1 ... done Attaching to rails_db_1, rails_web_1 db_1 | PostgreSQL init process complete; ready for start up. db_1 | db_1 | 2018-03-21 20:18:37.437 UTC  LOG: listening on IPv4 address "0.0.0.0", port 5432 db_1 | 2018-03-21 20:18:37.437 UTC  LOG: listening on IPv6 address "::", port 5432 db_1 | 2018-03-21 20:18:37.443 UTC  LOG: listening on Unix socket "/var/run/postgresql/.s.PGSQL.5432" db_1 | 2018-03-21 20:18:37.726 UTC  LOG: database system was shut down at 2018-03-21 20:18:37 UTC db_1 | 2018-03-21 20:18:37.772 UTC  LOG: database system is ready to accept connections
Finally, you need to create the database. In another terminal, run:
docker-compose run web rake db:create
Here is an example of the output from that command:
vmb at snapair in ~/sandbox/rails $ docker-compose run web rake db:create Starting rails_db_1 ... done Created database 'myapp_development' Created database 'myapp_test'
That’s it. Your app should now be running on port 3000 on your Docker daemon.
On Docker Desktop for Mac and Docker Desktop for Windows, go to
http://localhost:3000 on a web browser to see the Rails Welcome.
If you are using Docker Machine, then
docker-machine ip MACHINE_VM returns the Docker host IP address, to which you can append the port (
To stop the application, run docker-compose down in your project directory. You can use the same terminal window in which you started the database, or another one where you have access to a command prompt. This is a clean way to stop the application.
vmb at snapair in ~/sandbox/rails $ docker-compose down Stopping rails_web_1 ... done Stopping rails_db_1 ... done Removing rails_web_run_1 ... done Removing rails_web_1 ... done Removing rails_db_1 ... done Removing network rails_default
To restart the application run
docker-compose up in the project directory.
If you make changes to the Gemfile or the Compose file to try out some different configurations, you need to rebuild. Some changes require only
docker-compose up --build, but a full rebuild requires a re-run of
docker-compose run web bundle install to sync changes in the
Gemfile.lock to the host, followed by
docker-compose up --build.
Here is an example of the first case, where a full rebuild is not necessary. Suppose you simply want to change the exposed port on the local host from
3000 in our first example to
3001. Make the change to the Compose file to expose port
3000 on the container through a new port,
3001, on the host, and save the changes:
ports: - "3001:3000"
Now, rebuild and restart the app with
docker-compose up --build.
Inside the container, your app is running on the same port as before
3000, but the Rails Welcome is now available on
http://localhost:3001 on your local host.
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