/Drupal 8

protected function Renderer::doRender

protected Renderer::doRender(&$elements, $is_root_call = FALSE)

See the docs for ::render().


core/lib/Drupal/Core/Render/Renderer.php, line 207


Turns a render array into a HTML string.




protected function doRender(&$elements, $is_root_call = FALSE) {
  if (empty($elements)) {
    return '';

  if (!isset($elements['#access']) && isset($elements['#access_callback'])) {
    if (is_string($elements['#access_callback']) && strpos($elements['#access_callback'], '::') === FALSE) {
      $elements['#access_callback'] = $this->controllerResolver->getControllerFromDefinition($elements['#access_callback']);
    $elements['#access'] = call_user_func($elements['#access_callback'], $elements);

  // Early-return nothing if user does not have access.
  if (isset($elements['#access'])) {
    // If #access is an AccessResultInterface object, we must apply it's
    // cacheability metadata to the render array.
    if ($elements['#access'] instanceof AccessResultInterface) {
      $this->addCacheableDependency($elements, $elements['#access']);
      if (!$elements['#access']->isAllowed()) {
        return '';
    elseif ($elements['#access'] === FALSE) {
      return '';

  // Do not print elements twice.
  if (!empty($elements['#printed'])) {
    return '';

  $context = $this->getCurrentRenderContext();
  if (!isset($context)) {
    throw new \LogicException("Render context is empty, because render() was called outside of a renderRoot() or renderPlain() call. Use renderPlain()/renderRoot() or #lazy_builder/#pre_render instead.");
  $context->push(new BubbleableMetadata());

  // Set the bubbleable rendering metadata that has configurable defaults, if:
  // - this is the root call, to ensure that the final render array definitely
  //   has these configurable defaults, even when no subtree is render cached.
  // - this is a render cacheable subtree, to ensure that the cached data has
  //   the configurable defaults (which may affect the ID and invalidation).
  if ($is_root_call || isset($elements['#cache']['keys'])) {
    $required_cache_contexts = $this->rendererConfig['required_cache_contexts'];
    if (isset($elements['#cache']['contexts'])) {
      $elements['#cache']['contexts'] = Cache::mergeContexts($elements['#cache']['contexts'], $required_cache_contexts);
    else {
      $elements['#cache']['contexts'] = $required_cache_contexts;

  // Try to fetch the prerendered element from cache, replace any placeholders
  // and return the final markup.
  if (isset($elements['#cache']['keys'])) {
    $cached_element = $this->renderCache->get($elements);
    if ($cached_element !== FALSE) {
      $elements = $cached_element;
      // Only when we're in a root (non-recursive) Renderer::render() call,
      // placeholders must be processed, to prevent breaking the render cache
      // in case of nested elements with #cache set.
      if ($is_root_call) {
      // Mark the element markup as safe if is it a string.
      if (is_string($elements['#markup'])) {
        $elements['#markup'] = Markup::create($elements['#markup']);
      // The render cache item contains all the bubbleable rendering metadata
      // for the subtree.
      // Render cache hit, so rendering is finished, all necessary info
      // collected!
      return $elements['#markup'];
  // Two-tier caching: track pre-bubbling elements' #cache, #lazy_builder and
  // #create_placeholder for later comparison.
  // @see \Drupal\Core\Render\RenderCacheInterface::get()
  // @see \Drupal\Core\Render\RenderCacheInterface::set()
  $pre_bubbling_elements = array_intersect_key($elements, [
    '#cache' => TRUE,
    '#lazy_builder' => TRUE,
    '#create_placeholder' => TRUE,

  // If the default values for this element have not been loaded yet, populate
  // them.
  if (isset($elements['#type']) && empty($elements['#defaults_loaded'])) {
    $elements += $this->elementInfo->getInfo($elements['#type']);

  // First validate the usage of #lazy_builder; both of the next if-statements
  // use it if available.
  if (isset($elements['#lazy_builder'])) {
    // @todo Convert to assertions once https://www.drupal.org/node/2408013
    //   lands.
    if (!is_array($elements['#lazy_builder'])) {
      throw new \DomainException('The #lazy_builder property must have an array as a value.');
    if (count($elements['#lazy_builder']) !== 2) {
      throw new \DomainException('The #lazy_builder property must have an array as a value, containing two values: the callback, and the arguments for the callback.');
    if (count($elements['#lazy_builder'][1]) !== count(array_filter($elements['#lazy_builder'][1], function($v) {
      return is_null($v) || is_scalar($v);
    }))) {
      throw new \DomainException("A #lazy_builder callback's context may only contain scalar values or NULL.");
    $children = Element::children($elements);
    if ($children) {
      throw new \DomainException(sprintf('When a #lazy_builder callback is specified, no children can exist; all children must be generated by the #lazy_builder callback. You specified the following children: %s.', implode(', ', $children)));
    $supported_keys = [
      // These keys are not actually supported, but they are added automatically
      // by the Renderer, so we don't crash on them; them being missing when
      // their #lazy_builder callback is invoked won't surprise the developer.
    $unsupported_keys = array_diff(array_keys($elements), $supported_keys);
    if (count($unsupported_keys)) {
      throw new \DomainException(sprintf('When a #lazy_builder callback is specified, no properties can exist; all properties must be generated by the #lazy_builder callback. You specified the following properties: %s.', implode(', ', $unsupported_keys)));
  // Determine whether to do auto-placeholdering.
  if ($this->placeholderGenerator->canCreatePlaceholder($elements) && $this->placeholderGenerator->shouldAutomaticallyPlaceholder($elements)) {
    $elements['#create_placeholder'] = TRUE;
  // If instructed to create a placeholder, and a #lazy_builder callback is
  // present (without such a callback, it would be impossible to replace the
  // placeholder), replace the current element with a placeholder.
  // @todo remove the isMethodSafe() check when
  //       https://www.drupal.org/node/2367555 lands.
  if (isset($elements['#create_placeholder']) && $elements['#create_placeholder'] === TRUE && $this->requestStack->getCurrentRequest()->isMethodSafe()) {
    if (!isset($elements['#lazy_builder'])) {
      throw new \LogicException('When #create_placeholder is set, a #lazy_builder callback must be present as well.');
    $elements = $this->placeholderGenerator->createPlaceholder($elements);
  // Build the element if it is still empty.
  if (isset($elements['#lazy_builder'])) {
    $callable = $elements['#lazy_builder'][0];
    $args = $elements['#lazy_builder'][1];
    if (is_string($callable) && strpos($callable, '::') === FALSE) {
      $callable = $this->controllerResolver->getControllerFromDefinition($callable);
    $new_elements = call_user_func_array($callable, $args);
    // Retain the original cacheability metadata, plus cache keys.
    if (isset($elements['#cache']['keys'])) {
      $new_elements['#cache']['keys'] = $elements['#cache']['keys'];
    $elements = $new_elements;
    $elements['#lazy_builder_built'] = TRUE;

  // All render elements support #markup and #plain_text.
  if (!empty($elements['#markup']) || !empty($elements['#plain_text'])) {
    $elements = $this->ensureMarkupIsSafe($elements);

  // Make any final changes to the element before it is rendered. This means
  // that the $element or the children can be altered or corrected before the
  // element is rendered into the final text.
  if (isset($elements['#pre_render'])) {
    foreach ($elements['#pre_render'] as $callable) {
      if (is_string($callable) && strpos($callable, '::') === FALSE) {
        $callable = $this->controllerResolver->getControllerFromDefinition($callable);
      $elements = call_user_func($callable, $elements);

  // Defaults for bubbleable rendering metadata.
  $elements['#cache']['tags'] = isset($elements['#cache']['tags']) ? $elements['#cache']['tags'] : array();
  $elements['#cache']['max-age'] = isset($elements['#cache']['max-age']) ? $elements['#cache']['max-age'] : Cache::PERMANENT;
  $elements['#attached'] = isset($elements['#attached']) ? $elements['#attached'] : array();

  // Allow #pre_render to abort rendering.
  if (!empty($elements['#printed'])) {
    // The #printed element contains all the bubbleable rendering metadata for
    // the subtree.
    // #printed, so rendering is finished, all necessary info collected!
    return '';

  // Add any JavaScript state information associated with the element.
  if (!empty($elements['#states'])) {

  // Get the children of the element, sorted by weight.
  $children = Element::children($elements, TRUE);

  // Initialize this element's #children, unless a #pre_render callback
  // already preset #children.
  if (!isset($elements['#children'])) {
    $elements['#children'] = '';

  // Assume that if #theme is set it represents an implemented hook.
  $theme_is_implemented = isset($elements['#theme']);
  // Check the elements for insecure HTML and pass through sanitization.
  if (isset($elements)) {
    $markup_keys = array(
    foreach ($markup_keys as $key) {
      if (!empty($elements[$key]) && is_scalar($elements[$key])) {
        $elements[$key] = $this->xssFilterAdminIfUnsafe($elements[$key]);

  // Call the element's #theme function if it is set. Then any children of the
  // element have to be rendered there. If the internal #render_children
  // property is set, do not call the #theme function to prevent infinite
  // recursion.
  if ($theme_is_implemented && !isset($elements['#render_children'])) {
    $elements['#children'] = $this->theme->render($elements['#theme'], $elements);

    // If ThemeManagerInterface::render() returns FALSE this means that the
    // hook in #theme was not found in the registry and so we need to update
    // our flag accordingly. This is common for theme suggestions.
    $theme_is_implemented = ($elements['#children'] !== FALSE);

  // If #theme is not implemented or #render_children is set and the element
  // has an empty #children attribute, render the children now. This is the
  // same process as Renderer::render() but is inlined for speed.
  if ((!$theme_is_implemented || isset($elements['#render_children'])) && empty($elements['#children'])) {
    foreach ($children as $key) {
      $elements['#children'] .= $this->doRender($elements[$key]);
    $elements['#children'] = Markup::create($elements['#children']);

  // If #theme is not implemented and the element has raw #markup as a
  // fallback, prepend the content in #markup to #children. In this case
  // #children will contain whatever is provided by #pre_render prepended to
  // what is rendered recursively above. If #theme is implemented then it is
  // the responsibility of that theme implementation to render #markup if
  // required. Eventually #theme_wrappers will expect both #markup and
  // #children to be a single string as #children.
  if (!$theme_is_implemented && isset($elements['#markup'])) {
    $elements['#children'] = Markup::create($elements['#markup'] . $elements['#children']);

  // Let the theme functions in #theme_wrappers add markup around the rendered
  // children.
  // #states and #attached have to be processed before #theme_wrappers,
  // because the #type 'page' render array from drupal_prepare_page() would
  // render the $page and wrap it into the html.html.twig template without the
  // attached assets otherwise.
  // If the internal #render_children property is set, do not call the
  // #theme_wrappers function(s) to prevent infinite recursion.
  if (isset($elements['#theme_wrappers']) && !isset($elements['#render_children'])) {
    foreach ($elements['#theme_wrappers'] as $key => $value) {
      // If the value of a #theme_wrappers item is an array then the theme
      // hook is found in the key of the item and the value contains attribute
      // overrides. Attribute overrides replace key/value pairs in $elements
      // for only this ThemeManagerInterface::render() call. This allows
      // #theme hooks and #theme_wrappers hooks to share variable names
      // without conflict or ambiguity.
      $wrapper_elements = $elements;
      if (is_string($key)) {
        $wrapper_hook = $key;
        foreach ($value as $attribute => $override) {
          $wrapper_elements[$attribute] = $override;
      else {
        $wrapper_hook = $value;

      $elements['#children'] = $this->theme->render($wrapper_hook, $wrapper_elements);

  // Filter the outputted content and make any last changes before the content
  // is sent to the browser. The changes are made on $content which allows the
  // outputted text to be filtered.
  if (isset($elements['#post_render'])) {
    foreach ($elements['#post_render'] as $callable) {
      if (is_string($callable) && strpos($callable, '::') === FALSE) {
        $callable = $this->controllerResolver->getControllerFromDefinition($callable);
      $elements['#children'] = call_user_func($callable, $elements['#children'], $elements);

  // We store the resulting output in $elements['#markup'], to be consistent
  // with how render cached output gets stored. This ensures that placeholder
  // replacement logic gets the same data to work with, no matter if #cache is
  // disabled, #cache is enabled, there is a cache hit or miss.
  $prefix = isset($elements['#prefix']) ? $this->xssFilterAdminIfUnsafe($elements['#prefix']) : '';
  $suffix = isset($elements['#suffix']) ? $this->xssFilterAdminIfUnsafe($elements['#suffix']) : '';

  $elements['#markup'] = Markup::create($prefix . $elements['#children'] . $suffix);

  // We've rendered this element (and its subtree!), now update the context.

  // Cache the processed element if both $pre_bubbling_elements and $elements
  // have the metadata necessary to generate a cache ID.
  if (isset($pre_bubbling_elements['#cache']['keys']) && isset($elements['#cache']['keys'])) {
    if ($pre_bubbling_elements['#cache']['keys'] !== $elements['#cache']['keys']) {
      throw new \LogicException('Cache keys may not be changed after initial setup. Use the contexts property instead to bubble additional metadata.');
    $this->renderCache->set($elements, $pre_bubbling_elements);
    // Update the render context; the render cache implementation may update
    // the element, and it may have different bubbleable metadata now.
    // @see \Drupal\Core\Render\PlaceholderingRenderCache::set()
    $context->push(new BubbleableMetadata());

  // Only when we're in a root (non-recursive) Renderer::render() call,
  // placeholders must be processed, to prevent breaking the render cache in
  // case of nested elements with #cache set.
  // By running them here, we ensure that:
  // - they run when #cache is disabled,
  // - they run when #cache is enabled and there is a cache miss.
  // Only the case of a cache hit when #cache is enabled, is not handled here,
  // that is handled earlier in Renderer::render().
  if ($is_root_call) {
    // @todo remove as part of https://www.drupal.org/node/2511330.
    if ($context->count() !== 1) {
      throw new \LogicException('A stray drupal_render() invocation with $is_root_call = TRUE is causing bubbling of attached assets to break.');

  // Rendering is finished, all necessary info collected!

  $elements['#printed'] = TRUE;
  return $elements['#markup'];

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