Built-in GDScript functions.
List of core built-in GDScript functions. Math functions and other utilities. Everything else is provided by objects. (Keywords: builtin, built in, global functions.)
TAU / 2
.NaN
has special properties, including that it is not equal to itself. It is output by some invalid operations, such as dividing zero by zero.Returns a color constructed from integer red, green, blue, and alpha channels. Each channel should have 8 bits of information ranging from 0 to 255.
r8
red channel
g8
green channel
b8
blue channel
a8
alpha channel
red = Color8(255, 0, 0)
Returns a color according to the standardized name
with alpha
ranging from 0 to 1.
red = ColorN("red", 1)
Supported color names are the same as the constants defined in Color.
Returns the absolute value of parameter s
(i.e. positive value).
# a is 1 a = abs(-1)
Returns the arc cosine of s
in radians. Use to get the angle of cosine s
.
# c is 0.523599 or 30 degrees if converted with rad2deg(s) c = acos(0.866025)
Returns the arc sine of s
in radians. Use to get the angle of sine s
.
# s is 0.523599 or 30 degrees if converted with rad2deg(s) s = asin(0.5)
Asserts that the condition
is true
. If the condition
is false
, an error is generated and the program is halted until you resume it. Only executes in debug builds, or when running the game from the editor. Use it for debugging purposes, to make sure a statement is true
during development.
The optional message
argument, if given, is shown in addition to the generic "Assertion failed" message. You can use this to provide additional details about why the assertion failed.
# Imagine we always want speed to be between 0 and 20 speed = -10 assert(speed < 20) # True, the program will continue assert(speed >= 0) # False, the program will stop assert(speed >= 0 && speed < 20) # You can also combine the two conditional statements in one check assert(speed < 20, "speed = %f, but the speed limit is 20" % speed) # Show a message with clarifying details
Returns the arc tangent of s
in radians. Use it to get the angle from an angle's tangent in trigonometry: atan(tan(angle)) == angle
.
The method cannot know in which quadrant the angle should fall. See atan2 if you have both y
and x
.
a = atan(0.5) # a is 0.463648
Returns the arc tangent of y/x
in radians. Use to get the angle of tangent y/x
. To compute the value, the method takes into account the sign of both arguments in order to determine the quadrant.
Important note: The Y coordinate comes first, by convention.
a = atan2(0, -1) # a is 3.141593
Decodes a byte array back to a value. When allow_objects
is true
decoding objects is allowed.
WARNING: Deserialized object can contain code which gets executed. Do not use this option if the serialized object comes from untrusted sources to avoid potential security threats (remote code execution).
Converts a 2D point expressed in the cartesian coordinate system (X and Y axis) to the polar coordinate system (a distance from the origin and an angle).
Rounds s
upward (towards positive infinity), returning the smallest whole number that is not less than s
.
i = ceil(1.45) # i is 2 i = ceil(1.001) # i is 2
See also floor, round, and stepify.
Returns a character as a String of the given Unicode code point (which is compatible with ASCII code).
a = char(65) # a is "A" a = char(65 + 32) # a is "a" a = char(8364) # a is "€"
This is the inverse of ord.
Clamps value
and returns a value not less than min
and not more than max
.
speed = 1000 # a is 20 a = clamp(speed, 1, 20) speed = -10 # a is 1 a = clamp(speed, 1, 20)
Converts from a type to another in the best way possible. The type
parameter uses the Variant.Type values.
a = Vector2(1, 0) # Prints 1 print(a.length()) a = convert(a, TYPE_STRING) # Prints 6 as "(1, 0)" is 6 characters print(a.length())
Returns the cosine of angle s
in radians.
# Prints 1 then -1 print(cos(PI * 2)) print(cos(PI))
Returns the hyperbolic cosine of s
in radians.
# Prints 1.543081 print(cosh(1))
Converts from decibels to linear energy (audio).
Deprecated alias for step_decimals.
Returns the result of value
decreased by step
* amount
.
# a = 59 a = dectime(60, 10, 0.1))
Converts an angle expressed in degrees to radians.
# r is 3.141593 r = deg2rad(180)
Converts a previously converted instance to a dictionary, back into an instance. Useful for deserializing.
Easing function, based on exponent. The curve values are: 0 is constant, 1 is linear, 0 to 1 is ease-in, 1+ is ease out. Negative values are in-out/out in.
The natural exponential function. It raises the mathematical constant e to the power of s
and returns it.
e has an approximate value of 2.71828.
For exponents to other bases use the method pow.
a = exp(2) # Approximately 7.39
Rounds s
downward (towards negative infinity), returning the largest whole number that is not more than s
.
# a is 2.0 a = floor(2.99) # a is -3.0 a = floor(-2.99)
See also ceil, round, and stepify.
Note: This method returns a float. If you need an integer, you can use int(s)
directly.
Returns the floating-point remainder of a/b
, keeping the sign of a
.
# Remainder is 1.5 var remainder = fmod(7, 5.5)
For the integer remainder operation, use the % operator.
Returns the floating-point modulus of a/b
that wraps equally in positive and negative.
for i in 7: var x = 0.5 * i - 1.5 print("%4.1f %4.1f %4.1f" % [x, fmod(x, 1.5), fposmod(x, 1.5)])
Produces:
-1.5 -0.0 0.0 -1.0 -1.0 0.5 -0.5 -0.5 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.5 0.5 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.5 0.0 0.0
Returns a reference to the specified function funcname
in the instance
node. As functions aren't first-class objects in GDscript, use funcref
to store a FuncRef in a variable and call it later.
func foo(): return("bar") a = funcref(self, "foo") print(a.call_func()) # Prints bar
Returns an array of dictionaries representing the current call stack.
func _ready(): foo() func foo(): bar() func bar(): print(get_stack())
would print
[{function:bar, line:12, source:res://script.gd}, {function:foo, line:9, source:res://script.gd}, {function:_ready, line:6, source:res://script.gd}]
Returns the integer hash of the variable passed.
print(hash("a")) # Prints 177670
Returns the passed instance converted to a dictionary (useful for serializing).
var foo = "bar" func _ready(): var d = inst2dict(self) print(d.keys()) print(d.values())
Prints out:
[@subpath, @path, foo] [, res://test.gd, bar]
Returns the Object that corresponds to instance_id
. All Objects have a unique instance ID.
var foo = "bar" func _ready(): var id = get_instance_id() var inst = instance_from_id(id) print(inst.foo) # Prints bar
Returns a normalized value considering the given range. This is the opposite of lerp.
var middle = lerp(20, 30, 0.75) # `middle` is now 27.5. # Now, we pretend to have forgotten the original ratio and want to get it back. var ratio = inverse_lerp(20, 30, 27.5) # `ratio` is now 0.75.
Returns true
if a
and b
are approximately equal to each other.
Returns whether s
is an infinity value (either positive infinity or negative infinity).
Returns whether instance
is a valid object (e.g. has not been deleted from memory).
Returns whether s
is a NaN ("Not a Number" or invalid) value.
Returns true
if s
is zero or almost zero.
This method is faster than using is_equal_approx with one value as zero.
Returns length of Variant var
. Length is the character count of String, element count of Array, size of Dictionary, etc.
Note: Generates a fatal error if Variant can not provide a length.
a = [1, 2, 3, 4] len(a) # Returns 4
Linearly interpolates between two values by a normalized value. This is the opposite of inverse_lerp.
If the from
and to
arguments are of type int or float, the return value is a float.
If both are of the same vector type (Vector2, Vector3 or Color), the return value will be of the same type (lerp
then calls the vector type's linear_interpolate
method).
lerp(0, 4, 0.75) # Returns 3.0 lerp(Vector2(1, 5), Vector2(3, 2), 0.5) # Returns Vector2(2, 3.5)
Linearly interpolates between two angles (in radians) by a normalized value.
Similar to lerp, but interpolates correctly when the angles wrap around TAU.
extends Sprite var elapsed = 0.0 func _process(delta): var min_angle = deg2rad(0.0) var max_angle = deg2rad(90.0) rotation = lerp_angle(min_angle, max_angle, elapsed) elapsed += delta
Converts from linear energy to decibels (audio). This can be used to implement volume sliders that behave as expected (since volume isn't linear). Example:
# "Slider" refers to a node that inherits Range such as HSlider or VSlider. # Its range must be configured to go from 0 to 1. # Change the bus name if you'd like to change the volume of a specific bus only. AudioServer.set_bus_volume_db(AudioServer.get_bus_index("Master"), linear2db($Slider.value))
Loads a resource from the filesystem located at path
. The resource is loaded on the method call (unless it's referenced already elsewhere, e.g. in another script or in the scene), which might cause slight delay, especially when loading scenes. To avoid unnecessary delays when loading something multiple times, either store the resource in a variable or use preload.
Note: Resource paths can be obtained by right-clicking on a resource in the FileSystem dock and choosing "Copy Path" or by dragging the file from the FileSystem dock into the script.
# Load a scene called main located in the root of the project directory and cache it in a variable. var main = load("res://main.tscn") # main will contain a PackedScene resource.
Important: The path must be absolute, a local path will just return null
.
Natural logarithm. The amount of time needed to reach a certain level of continuous growth.
Note: This is not the same as the "log" function on most calculators, which uses a base 10 logarithm.
log(10) # Returns 2.302585
Returns the maximum of two values.
max(1, 2) # Returns 2 max(-3.99, -4) # Returns -3.99
Returns the minimum of two values.
min(1, 2) # Returns 1 min(-3.99, -4) # Returns -4
Moves from
toward to
by the delta
value.
Use a negative delta
value to move away.
move_toward(10, 5, 4) # Returns 6
Returns the nearest larger power of 2 for integer value
.
nearest_po2(3) # Returns 4 nearest_po2(4) # Returns 4 nearest_po2(5) # Returns 8
Returns an integer representing the Unicode code point of the given Unicode character char
.
a = ord("A") # a is 65 a = ord("a") # a is 97 a = ord("€") # a is 8364
This is the inverse of char.
Parse JSON text to a Variant. (Use typeof to check if the Variant's type is what you expect.)
Note: The JSON specification does not define integer or float types, but only a number type. Therefore, parsing a JSON text will convert all numerical values to float types.
Note: JSON objects do not preserve key order like Godot dictionaries, thus, you should not rely on keys being in a certain order if a dictionary is constructed from JSON. In contrast, JSON arrays retain the order of their elements:
var p = JSON.parse('["hello", "world", "!"]') if typeof(p.result) == TYPE_ARRAY: print(p.result[0]) # Prints "hello" else: push_error("Unexpected results.")
See also JSON for an alternative way to parse JSON text.
Converts a 2D point expressed in the polar coordinate system (a distance from the origin r
and an angle th
) to the cartesian coordinate system (X and Y axis).
Returns the integer modulus of a/b
that wraps equally in positive and negative.
for i in range(-3, 4): print("%2.0f %2.0f %2.0f" % [i, i % 3, posmod(i, 3)])
Produces:
-3 0 0 -2 -2 1 -1 -1 2 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 0 0
Returns the result of x
raised to the power of y
.
pow(2, 5) # Returns 32
Returns a Resource from the filesystem located at path
. The resource is loaded during script parsing, i.e. is loaded with the script and preload effectively acts as a reference to that resource. Note that the method requires a constant path. If you want to load a resource from a dynamic/variable path, use load.
Note: Resource paths can be obtained by right clicking on a resource in the Assets Panel and choosing "Copy Path" or by dragging the file from the FileSystem dock into the script.
# Instance a scene. var diamond = preload("res://diamond.tscn").instance()
Converts one or more arguments to strings in the best way possible and prints them to the console.
a = [1, 2, 3] print("a", "b", a) # Prints ab[1, 2, 3]
Like print, but prints only when used in debug mode.
Prints a stack track at code location, only works when running with debugger turned on.
Output in the console would look something like this:
Frame 0 - res://test.gd:16 in function '_process'
Prints one or more arguments to strings in the best way possible to standard error line.
printerr("prints to stderr")
Prints one or more arguments to strings in the best way possible to console. No newline is added at the end.
printraw("A") printraw("B") # Prints AB
Note: Due to limitations with Godot's built-in console, this only prints to the terminal. If you need to print in the editor, use another method, such as print.
Prints one or more arguments to the console with a space between each argument.
prints("A", "B", "C") # Prints A B C
Prints one or more arguments to the console with a tab between each argument.
printt("A", "B", "C") # Prints A B C
Pushes an error message to Godot's built-in debugger and to the OS terminal.
push_error("test error") # Prints "test error" to debugger and terminal as error call
Pushes a warning message to Godot's built-in debugger and to the OS terminal.
push_warning("test warning") # Prints "test warning" to debugger and terminal as warning call
Converts an angle expressed in radians to degrees.
rad2deg(0.523599) # Returns 30
Random range, any floating point value between from
and to
.
prints(rand_range(0, 1), rand_range(0, 1)) # Prints e.g. 0.135591 0.405263
Random from seed: pass a seed
, and an array with both number and new seed is returned. "Seed" here refers to the internal state of the pseudo random number generator. The internal state of the current implementation is 64 bits.
Returns a random floating point value on the interval [0, 1]
.
randf() # Returns e.g. 0.375671
Returns a random unsigned 32 bit integer. Use remainder to obtain a random value in the interval [0, N - 1]
(where N is smaller than 2^32).
randi() # Returns random integer between 0 and 2^32 - 1 randi() % 20 # Returns random integer between 0 and 19 randi() % 100 # Returns random integer between 0 and 99 randi() % 100 + 1 # Returns random integer between 1 and 100
Randomizes the seed (or the internal state) of the random number generator. Current implementation reseeds using a number based on time.
func _ready(): randomize()
Returns an array with the given range. Range can be 1 argument N (0 to N-1), two arguments (initial, final-1) or three arguments (initial, final-1, increment).
print(range(4)) print(range(2, 5)) print(range(0, 6, 2))
Output:
[0, 1, 2, 3] [2, 3, 4] [0, 2, 4]
Maps a value
from range [istart, istop]
to [ostart, ostop]
.
range_lerp(75, 0, 100, -1, 1) # Returns 0.5
Rounds s
to the nearest whole number, with halfway cases rounded away from zero.
round(2.6) # Returns 3
See also floor, ceil, and stepify.
Sets seed for the random number generator.
my_seed = "Godot Rocks" seed(my_seed.hash())
Returns the sign of s
: -1 or 1. Returns 0 if s
is 0.
sign(-6) # Returns -1 sign(0) # Returns 0 sign(6) # Returns 1
Returns the sine of angle s
in radians.
sin(0.523599) # Returns 0.5
Returns the hyperbolic sine of s
.
a = log(2.0) # Returns 0.693147 sinh(a) # Returns 0.75
Returns a number smoothly interpolated between the from
and to
, based on the weight
. Similar to lerp, but interpolates faster at the beginning and slower at the end.
smoothstep(0, 2, 0.5) # Returns 0.15 smoothstep(0, 2, 1.0) # Returns 0.5 smoothstep(0, 2, 2.0) # Returns 1.0
Returns the square root of s
, where s
is a non-negative number.
sqrt(9) # Returns 3
If you need negative inputs, use System.Numerics.Complex
in C#.
Returns the position of the first non-zero digit, after the decimal point. Note that the maximum return value is 10, which is a design decision in the implementation.
# n is 0 n = step_decimals(5) # n is 4 n = step_decimals(1.0005) # n is 9 n = step_decimals(0.000000005)
Snaps float value s
to a given step
. This can also be used to round a floating point number to an arbitrary number of decimals.
stepify(100, 32) # Returns 96 stepify(3.14159, 0.01) # Returns 3.14
See also ceil, floor, and round.
Converts one or more arguments to string in the best way possible.
var a = [10, 20, 30] var b = str(a); len(a) # Returns 3 len(b) # Returns 12
Converts a formatted string that was returned by var2str to the original value.
a = '{ "a": 1, "b": 2 }' b = str2var(a) print(b["a"]) # Prints 1
Returns the tangent of angle s
in radians.
tan(deg2rad(45)) # Returns 1
Returns the hyperbolic tangent of s
.
a = log(2.0) # Returns 0.693147 tanh(a) # Returns 0.6
Converts a Variant var
to JSON text and return the result. Useful for serializing data to store or send over the network.
# Both numbers below are integers. a = { "a": 1, "b": 2 } b = to_json(a) print(b) # {"a":1, "b":2} # Both numbers above are floats, even if they display without any decimal places.
Note: The JSON specification does not define integer or float types, but only a number type. Therefore, converting a Variant to JSON text will convert all numerical values to float types.
See also JSON for an alternative way to convert a Variant to JSON text.
Returns whether the given class exists in ClassDB.
type_exists("Sprite") # Returns true type_exists("Variant") # Returns false
Returns the internal type of the given Variant object, using the Variant.Type values.
p = parse_json('["a", "b", "c"]') if typeof(p) == TYPE_ARRAY: print(p[0]) # Prints a else: print("unexpected results")
Checks that json
is valid JSON data. Returns an empty string if valid, or an error message otherwise.
j = to_json([1, 2, 3]) v = validate_json(j) if not v: print("Valid JSON.") else: push_error("Invalid JSON: " + v)
Encodes a variable value to a byte array. When full_objects
is true
encoding objects is allowed (and can potentially include code).
Converts a Variant var
to a formatted string that can later be parsed using str2var.
a = { "a": 1, "b": 2 } print(var2str(a))
prints
{ "a": 1, "b": 2 }
Returns a weak reference to an object.
A weak reference to an object is not enough to keep the object alive: when the only remaining references to a referent are weak references, garbage collection is free to destroy the referent and reuse its memory for something else. However, until the object is actually destroyed the weak reference may return the object even if there are no strong references to it.
Wraps float value
between min
and max
.
Usable for creating loop-alike behavior or infinite surfaces.
# Infinite loop between 5.0 and 9.9 value = wrapf(value + 0.1, 5.0, 10.0)
# Infinite rotation (in radians) angle = wrapf(angle + 0.1, 0.0, TAU)
# Infinite rotation (in radians) angle = wrapf(angle + 0.1, -PI, PI)
Note: If min
is 0
, this is equivalent to fposmod, so prefer using that instead.
wrapf
is more flexible than using the fposmod approach by giving the user control over the minimum value.
Wraps integer value
between min
and max
.
Usable for creating loop-alike behavior or infinite surfaces.
# Infinite loop between 5 and 9 frame = wrapi(frame + 1, 5, 10)
# result is -2 var result = wrapi(-6, -5, -1)
Note: If min
is 0
, this is equivalent to posmod, so prefer using that instead.
wrapi
is more flexible than using the posmod approach by giving the user control over the minimum value.
Stops the function execution and returns the current suspended state to the calling function.
From the caller, call GDScriptFunctionState.resume on the state to resume execution. This invalidates the state. Within the resumed function, yield()
returns whatever was passed to the resume()
function call.
If passed an object and a signal, the execution is resumed when the object emits the given signal. In this case, yield()
returns the argument passed to emit_signal()
if the signal takes only one argument, or an array containing all the arguments passed to emit_signal()
if the signal takes multiple arguments.
You can also use yield
to wait for a function to finish:
func _ready(): yield(countdown(), "completed") # waiting for the countdown() function to complete print('Ready') func countdown(): yield(get_tree(), "idle_frame") # returns a GDScriptFunctionState object to _ready() print(3) yield(get_tree().create_timer(1.0), "timeout") print(2) yield(get_tree().create_timer(1.0), "timeout") print(1) yield(get_tree().create_timer(1.0), "timeout") # prints: # 3 # 2 # 1 # Ready
When yielding on a function, the completed
signal will be emitted automatically when the function returns. It can, therefore, be used as the signal
parameter of the yield
method to resume.
In order to yield on a function, the resulting function should also return a GDScriptFunctionState
. Notice yield(get_tree(), "idle_frame")
from the above example.
© 2014–2020 Juan Linietsky, Ariel Manzur, Godot Engine contributors
Licensed under the MIT License.
https://docs.godotengine.org/en/3.2/classes/[email protected]