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Handle operations implemented by file descriptors (FDs)
A handle managing input from the Haskell program's standard input channel.
A handle managing output to the Haskell program's standard output channel.
A handle managing output to the Haskell program's standard error channel.
file mode allocates and returns a new, open handle to manage the file
file. It manages input if
ReadMode, output if
AppendMode, and both input and output if mode is
If the file does not exist and it is opened for output, it should be created as a new file. If
WriteMode and the file already exists, then it should be truncated to zero length. Some operating systems delete empty files, so there is no guarantee that the file will exist following an
WriteMode unless it is subsequently written to successfully. The handle is positioned at the end of the file if
AppendMode, and otherwise at the beginning (in which case its internal position is 0). The initial buffer mode is implementation-dependent.
This operation may fail with:
isAlreadyInUseErrorif the file is already open and cannot be reopened;
isDoesNotExistErrorif the file does not exist; or
isPermissionErrorif the user does not have permission to open the file.
Note: if you will be working with files containing binary data, you'll want to be using
openFile, but open the file in binary mode. On Windows, reading a file in text mode (which is the default) will translate CRLF to LF, and writing will translate LF to CRLF. This is usually what you want with text files. With binary files this is undesirable; also, as usual under Microsoft operating systems, text mode treats control-Z as EOF. Binary mode turns off all special treatment of end-of-line and end-of-file characters. (See also
openFile, but opens the file in ordinary blocking mode. This can be useful for opening a FIFO for writing: if we open in non-blocking mode then the open will fail if there are no readers, whereas a blocking open will block until a reader appear.
Turn an existing file descriptor into a Handle. This is used by various external libraries to make Handles.
Makes a binary Handle. This is for historical reasons; it should probably be a text Handle with the default encoding and newline translation instead.
Old API kept to avoid breaking clients
Turn an existing Handle into a file descriptor. This function throws an IOError if the Handle does not reference a file descriptor.
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