Return the product of array elements over a given axis.
a : array_like
axis : None or int or tuple of ints, optional
Axis or axes along which a product is performed. The default, axis=None, will calculate the product of all the elements in the input array. If axis is negative it counts from the last to the first axis.
If axis is a tuple of ints, a product is performed on all of the axes specified in the tuple instead of a single axis or all the axes as before.
dtype : dtype, optional
The type of the returned array, as well as of the accumulator in which the elements are multiplied. The dtype of
a is used by default unless
a has an integer dtype of less precision than the default platform integer. In that case, if
a is signed then the platform integer is used while if
a is unsigned then an unsigned integer of the same precision as the platform integer is used.
out : ndarray, optional
Alternative output array in which to place the result. It must have the same shape as the expected output, but the type of the output values will be cast if necessary.
keepdims : bool, optional
If this is set to True, the axes which are reduced are left in the result as dimensions with size one. With this option, the result will broadcast correctly against the input array.
If the default value is passed, then
keepdims will not be passed through to the
prod method of sub-classes of
ndarray, however any non-default value will be. If the sub-class’ method does not implement
keepdims any exceptions will be raised.
initial : scalar, optional
The starting value for this product. See
reduce for details.
where : array_like of bool, optional
Elements to include in the product. See
reduce for details.
product_along_axis : ndarray, see dtype parameter above.
An array shaped as
a but with the specified axis removed. Returns a reference to
out if specified.
- equivalent method
- Section “Output arguments”
Arithmetic is modular when using integer types, and no error is raised on overflow. That means that, on a 32-bit platform:
>>> x = np.array([536870910, 536870910, 536870910, 536870910])
16 # may vary
The product of an empty array is the neutral element 1:
By default, calculate the product of all elements:
Even when the input array is two-dimensional:
But we can also specify the axis over which to multiply:
>>> np.prod([[1.,2.],[3.,4.]], axis=1)
array([ 2., 12.])
Or select specific elements to include:
>>> np.prod([1., np.nan, 3.], where=[True, False, True])
If the type of
x is unsigned, then the output type is the unsigned platform integer:
>>> x = np.array([1, 2, 3], dtype=np.uint8)
>>> np.prod(x).dtype == np.uint
x is of a signed integer type, then the output type is the default platform integer:
>>> x = np.array([1, 2, 3], dtype=np.int8)
>>> np.prod(x).dtype == int
You can also start the product with a value other than one:
>>> np.prod([1, 2], initial=5)