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wp_mail( string|array $to, string $subject, string $message, string|array $headers = '', string|array $attachments = array() )

Send mail, similar to PHP’s mail

Description

A true return value does not automatically mean that the user received the email successfully. It just only means that the method used was able to process the request without any errors.

Using the two ‘wp_mail_from’ and ‘wp_mail_from_name’ hooks allow from creating a from address like ‘Name [email protected]‘ when both are set. If just ‘wp_mail_from’ is set, then just the email address will be used with no name.

The default content type is ‘text/plain’ which does not allow using HTML. However, you can set the content type of the email by using the ‘wp_mail_content_type’ filter.

The default charset is based on the charset used on the blog. The charset can be set using the ‘wp_mail_charset’ filter.

Parameters

$to

(string|array) (Required) Array or comma-separated list of email addresses to send message.

$subject

(string) (Required) Email subject

$message

(string) (Required) Message contents

$headers

(string|array) (Optional) Additional headers.

Default value: ''

$attachments

(string|array) (Optional) Files to attach.

Default value: array()

Return

(bool) Whether the email contents were sent successfully.

Source

File: wp-includes/pluggable.php

function wp_mail( $to, $subject, $message, $headers = '', $attachments = array() ) {
		// Compact the input, apply the filters, and extract them back out

		/**
		 * Filters the wp_mail() arguments.
		 *
		 * @since 2.2.0
		 *
		 * @param array $args A compacted array of wp_mail() arguments, including the "to" email,
		 *                    subject, message, headers, and attachments values.
		 */
		$atts = apply_filters( 'wp_mail', compact( 'to', 'subject', 'message', 'headers', 'attachments' ) );

		if ( isset( $atts['to'] ) ) {
			$to = $atts['to'];
		}

		if ( ! is_array( $to ) ) {
			$to = explode( ',', $to );
		}

		if ( isset( $atts['subject'] ) ) {
			$subject = $atts['subject'];
		}

		if ( isset( $atts['message'] ) ) {
			$message = $atts['message'];
		}

		if ( isset( $atts['headers'] ) ) {
			$headers = $atts['headers'];
		}

		if ( isset( $atts['attachments'] ) ) {
			$attachments = $atts['attachments'];
		}

		if ( ! is_array( $attachments ) ) {
			$attachments = explode( "\n", str_replace( "\r\n", "\n", $attachments ) );
		}
		global $phpmailer;

		// (Re)create it, if it's gone missing
		if ( ! ( $phpmailer instanceof PHPMailer ) ) {
			require_once ABSPATH . WPINC . '/class-phpmailer.php';
			require_once ABSPATH . WPINC . '/class-smtp.php';
			$phpmailer = new PHPMailer( true );
		}

		// Headers
		$cc = $bcc = $reply_to = array();

		if ( empty( $headers ) ) {
			$headers = array();
		} else {
			if ( ! is_array( $headers ) ) {
				// Explode the headers out, so this function can take both
				// string headers and an array of headers.
				$tempheaders = explode( "\n", str_replace( "\r\n", "\n", $headers ) );
			} else {
				$tempheaders = $headers;
			}
			$headers = array();

			// If it's actually got contents
			if ( ! empty( $tempheaders ) ) {
				// Iterate through the raw headers
				foreach ( (array) $tempheaders as $header ) {
					if ( strpos( $header, ':' ) === false ) {
						if ( false !== stripos( $header, 'boundary=' ) ) {
							$parts    = preg_split( '/boundary=/i', trim( $header ) );
							$boundary = trim( str_replace( array( "'", '"' ), '', $parts[1] ) );
						}
						continue;
					}
					// Explode them out
					list( $name, $content ) = explode( ':', trim( $header ), 2 );

					// Cleanup crew
					$name    = trim( $name );
					$content = trim( $content );

					switch ( strtolower( $name ) ) {
						// Mainly for legacy -- process a From: header if it's there
						case 'from':
							$bracket_pos = strpos( $content, '<' );
							if ( $bracket_pos !== false ) {
								// Text before the bracketed email is the "From" name.
								if ( $bracket_pos > 0 ) {
									$from_name = substr( $content, 0, $bracket_pos - 1 );
									$from_name = str_replace( '"', '', $from_name );
									$from_name = trim( $from_name );
								}

								$from_email = substr( $content, $bracket_pos + 1 );
								$from_email = str_replace( '>', '', $from_email );
								$from_email = trim( $from_email );

								// Avoid setting an empty $from_email.
							} elseif ( '' !== trim( $content ) ) {
								$from_email = trim( $content );
							}
							break;
						case 'content-type':
							if ( strpos( $content, ';' ) !== false ) {
								list( $type, $charset_content ) = explode( ';', $content );
								$content_type                   = trim( $type );
								if ( false !== stripos( $charset_content, 'charset=' ) ) {
									$charset = trim( str_replace( array( 'charset=', '"' ), '', $charset_content ) );
								} elseif ( false !== stripos( $charset_content, 'boundary=' ) ) {
									$boundary = trim( str_replace( array( 'BOUNDARY=', 'boundary=', '"' ), '', $charset_content ) );
									$charset  = '';
								}

								// Avoid setting an empty $content_type.
							} elseif ( '' !== trim( $content ) ) {
								$content_type = trim( $content );
							}
							break;
						case 'cc':
							$cc = array_merge( (array) $cc, explode( ',', $content ) );
							break;
						case 'bcc':
							$bcc = array_merge( (array) $bcc, explode( ',', $content ) );
							break;
						case 'reply-to':
							$reply_to = array_merge( (array) $reply_to, explode( ',', $content ) );
							break;
						default:
							// Add it to our grand headers array
							$headers[ trim( $name ) ] = trim( $content );
							break;
					}
				}
			}
		}

		// Empty out the values that may be set
		$phpmailer->clearAllRecipients();
		$phpmailer->clearAttachments();
		$phpmailer->clearCustomHeaders();
		$phpmailer->clearReplyTos();

		// From email and name
		// If we don't have a name from the input headers
		if ( ! isset( $from_name ) ) {
			$from_name = 'WordPress';
		}

		/* If we don't have an email from the input headers default to [email protected]$sitename
		 * Some hosts will block outgoing mail from this address if it doesn't exist but
		 * there's no easy alternative. Defaulting to admin_email might appear to be another
		 * option but some hosts may refuse to relay mail from an unknown domain. See
		 * https://core.trac.wordpress.org/ticket/5007.
		 */

		if ( ! isset( $from_email ) ) {
			// Get the site domain and get rid of www.
			$sitename = strtolower( $_SERVER['SERVER_NAME'] );
			if ( substr( $sitename, 0, 4 ) == 'www.' ) {
				$sitename = substr( $sitename, 4 );
			}

			$from_email = '[email protected]' . $sitename;
		}

		/**
		 * Filters the email address to send from.
		 *
		 * @since 2.2.0
		 *
		 * @param string $from_email Email address to send from.
		 */
		$from_email = apply_filters( 'wp_mail_from', $from_email );

		/**
		 * Filters the name to associate with the "from" email address.
		 *
		 * @since 2.3.0
		 *
		 * @param string $from_name Name associated with the "from" email address.
		 */
		$from_name = apply_filters( 'wp_mail_from_name', $from_name );

		try {
			$phpmailer->setFrom( $from_email, $from_name, false );
		} catch ( phpmailerException $e ) {
			$mail_error_data                             = compact( 'to', 'subject', 'message', 'headers', 'attachments' );
			$mail_error_data['phpmailer_exception_code'] = $e->getCode();

			/** This filter is documented in wp-includes/pluggable.php */
			do_action( 'wp_mail_failed', new WP_Error( 'wp_mail_failed', $e->getMessage(), $mail_error_data ) );

			return false;
		}

		// Set mail's subject and body
		$phpmailer->Subject = $subject;
		$phpmailer->Body    = $message;

		// Set destination addresses, using appropriate methods for handling addresses
		$address_headers = compact( 'to', 'cc', 'bcc', 'reply_to' );

		foreach ( $address_headers as $address_header => $addresses ) {
			if ( empty( $addresses ) ) {
				continue;
			}

			foreach ( (array) $addresses as $address ) {
				try {
					// Break $recipient into name and address parts if in the format "Foo <[email protected]>"
					$recipient_name = '';

					if ( preg_match( '/(.*)<(.+)>/', $address, $matches ) ) {
						if ( count( $matches ) == 3 ) {
							$recipient_name = $matches[1];
							$address        = $matches[2];
						}
					}

					switch ( $address_header ) {
						case 'to':
							$phpmailer->addAddress( $address, $recipient_name );
							break;
						case 'cc':
							$phpmailer->addCc( $address, $recipient_name );
							break;
						case 'bcc':
							$phpmailer->addBcc( $address, $recipient_name );
							break;
						case 'reply_to':
							$phpmailer->addReplyTo( $address, $recipient_name );
							break;
					}
				} catch ( phpmailerException $e ) {
					continue;
				}
			}
		}

		// Set to use PHP's mail()
		$phpmailer->isMail();

		// Set Content-Type and charset
		// If we don't have a content-type from the input headers
		if ( ! isset( $content_type ) ) {
			$content_type = 'text/plain';
		}

		/**
		 * Filters the wp_mail() content type.
		 *
		 * @since 2.3.0
		 *
		 * @param string $content_type Default wp_mail() content type.
		 */
		$content_type = apply_filters( 'wp_mail_content_type', $content_type );

		$phpmailer->ContentType = $content_type;

		// Set whether it's plaintext, depending on $content_type
		if ( 'text/html' == $content_type ) {
			$phpmailer->isHTML( true );
		}

		// If we don't have a charset from the input headers
		if ( ! isset( $charset ) ) {
			$charset = get_bloginfo( 'charset' );
		}

		// Set the content-type and charset

		/**
		 * Filters the default wp_mail() charset.
		 *
		 * @since 2.3.0
		 *
		 * @param string $charset Default email charset.
		 */
		$phpmailer->CharSet = apply_filters( 'wp_mail_charset', $charset );

		// Set custom headers
		if ( ! empty( $headers ) ) {
			foreach ( (array) $headers as $name => $content ) {
				$phpmailer->addCustomHeader( sprintf( '%1$s: %2$s', $name, $content ) );
			}

			if ( false !== stripos( $content_type, 'multipart' ) && ! empty( $boundary ) ) {
				$phpmailer->addCustomHeader( sprintf( "Content-Type: %s;\n\t boundary=\"%s\"", $content_type, $boundary ) );
			}
		}

		if ( ! empty( $attachments ) ) {
			foreach ( $attachments as $attachment ) {
				try {
					$phpmailer->addAttachment( $attachment );
				} catch ( phpmailerException $e ) {
					continue;
				}
			}
		}

		/**
		 * Fires after PHPMailer is initialized.
		 *
		 * @since 2.2.0
		 *
		 * @param PHPMailer $phpmailer The PHPMailer instance (passed by reference).
		 */
		do_action_ref_array( 'phpmailer_init', array( &$phpmailer ) );

		// Send!
		try {
			return $phpmailer->send();
		} catch ( phpmailerException $e ) {

			$mail_error_data                             = compact( 'to', 'subject', 'message', 'headers', 'attachments' );
			$mail_error_data['phpmailer_exception_code'] = $e->getCode();

			/**
			 * Fires after a phpmailerException is caught.
			 *
			 * @since 4.4.0
			 *
			 * @param WP_Error $error A WP_Error object with the phpmailerException message, and an array
			 *                        containing the mail recipient, subject, message, headers, and attachments.
			 */
			do_action( 'wp_mail_failed', new WP_Error( 'wp_mail_failed', $e->getMessage(), $mail_error_data ) );

			return false;
		}
	}

Changelog

Version Description
1.2.1 Introduced.

More Information

Usage

wp_mail( $to, $subject, $message, $headers, $attachments );

Optional filters ‘wp_mail_from‘ and ‘wp_mail_from_name‘ are run on the sender email address and name. The return values are reassembled into a ‘from’ address like ‘”Example User” ‘ If only ‘wp_mail_from‘ returns a value, then just the email address will be used with no name.

The default content type is ‘text/plain’ which does not allow using HTML. You can set the content type of the email either by using the ‘wp_mail_content_type‘ filter ( see example below), or by including a header like “Content-type: text/html”. Be careful to reset ‘wp_mail_content_type’ back to ‘text/plain’ after you send your message, though, because failing to do so could lead to unexpected problems with e-mails from WP or plugins/themes.

The default charset is based on the charset used on the blog. The charset can be set using the ‘wp_mail_charset‘ filter.

Notes

  • A true return value does not automatically mean that the user received the email successfully.
  • For this function to work, the settings SMTP and smtp_port (default: 25) need to be set in your php.ini file.
  • The function is available after the hook 'plugins_loaded'.
  • The filenames in the $attachments attribute have to be filesystem paths.

Valid Address Formats

All email addresses supplied to wp_mail() as the $to parameter must comply with RFC 2822. Some valid examples:

The same applies to Cc: and Bcc: fields in $headers, but as noted in the next section, it’s better to push multiple addresses into an array instead of listing them on a single line. Either address format, with or without the user name, may be used.

Using $headers To Set “From:”, “Cc:” and “Bcc:” Parameters

To set the “From:” email address to something other than the WordPress default sender, or to add “Cc:” and/or “Bcc:” recipients, you must use the $headers argument.

$headers can be a string or an array, but it may be easiest to use in the array form. To use it, push a string onto the array, starting with “From:”, “Bcc:” or “Cc:” (note the use of the “:”), followed by a valid email address.

When you are using the array form, you do not need to supply line breaks ("\n" or "\r\n"). Although the function can handle multiple emails per line, it may simply be easier to push each email address separately onto the $headers array. The function will figure it out and will build the proper Mime header automagically. Just don’t forget that each string you push must have the header type as the first part of the string (“From:”, “Cc:” or “Bcc:”)

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Licensed under the GNU GPLv2+ License.
https://developer.wordpress.org/reference/functions/wp_mail