Decrements the initial expected count for all subsequent phases by one, and then decrements the expected count for the current phase by one.
This function is executed atomically. The call to this function strongly happens-before the start of the phase completion step for the current phase.
The behavior is undefined if the expected count for the current phase is zero.
std::system_error with an error code allowed for mutex types on error.
This function can cause the completion step for the current phase to start.
If the current expected count is zero before calling this function, the initial expected count for all subsequent phases is also zero, which means the
barrier cannot be reused.
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