/Web APIs

Presentation API

Secure context: This feature is available only in secure contexts (HTTPS), in some or all supporting browsers.

Experimental: This is an experimental technology
Check the Browser compatibility table carefully before using this in production.

The Presentation API lets a user agent (such as a Web browser) effectively display web content through large presentation devices such as projectors and network-connected televisions. Supported types of multimedia devices include both displays which are wired using HDMI, DVI, or the like, or wireless, using DLNA, Chromecast, AirPlay, or Miracast.

1-UA mode loaded the Controlling and Presenting pages together before outputting to displays. 2-UA mode loaded them separately using the Presentation Control Protocol.

In general, a web page uses the Presentation Controller API to specify the web content to be rendered on presentation device and initiate the presentation session. With Presentation Receiver API, the presenting web content obtains the session status. With providing both the controller page and the receiver one with a messaged-based channel, a Web developer can implement the interaction between these two pages.

Depending on the connection mechanism provided by the presentation device, any controller- and receiver page can be rendered by the same user agent, or by separated user agents.

  • For 1-UA mode devices, both pages are loaded by the same user agent. However, rendering result of the receiver page will be sent to the presentation device via supported remote rendering protocol.
  • For 2-UAs mode device, the receiver page is loaded directly on the presentation device. Controlling user agent communicates with presentation device via supported presentation control protocol, to control the presentation session and to transmit the message between two pages.



In controlling browsing context, the Presentation interface provides a mechanism to override the browser default behavior of launching presentation to external screen. In receiving browsing context, Presentation interface provides the access to the available presentation connections.


Initiates or reconnects to a presentation made by a controlling browsing context.


A PresentationAvailability object is associated with available presentation displays and represents the presentation display availability for a presentation request.


The PresentationConnectionAvailableEvent is fired on a PresentationRequest when a connection associated with the object is created.


Each presentation connection is represented by a PresentationConnection object.


A PresentationConnectionCloseEvent is fired when a presentation connection enters a closed state.


The PresentationReceiver allows a receiving browsing context to access the controlling browsing contexts and communicate with them.


PresentationConnectionList represents the collection of non-terminated presentation connections. It is also a monitor for the event of new available presentation connection.


Example codes below highlight the usage of main features of the Presentation API: controller.html implements the controller and presentation.html implements the presentation. Both pages are served from the domain http://example.org (http://example.org/controller.html and http://example.org/presentation.html). These examples assume that the controlling page is managing one presentation at a time. Please refer to the comments in the code examples for further details.

Monitor availability of presentation displays

In controller.html:

<button id="presentBtn" style="display: none;">Present</button>
  // The Present button is visible if at least one presentation display is available
  const presentBtn = document.getElementById("presentBtn");

  // It is also possible to use relative presentation URL e.g. "presentation.html"
  const presUrls = [

  // Show or hide present button depending on display availability
  const handleAvailabilityChange = (available) => {
    presentBtn.style.display = available ? "inline" : "none";

  // Promise is resolved as soon as the presentation display availability is known.
  const request = new PresentationRequest(presUrls);
    .then((availability) => {
      // availability.value may be kept up-to-date by the controlling UA as long
      // as the availability object is alive. It is advised for the web developers
      // to discard the object as soon as it's not needed.
      availability.onchange = () => {
    .catch(() => {
      // Availability monitoring is not supported by the platform, so discovery of
      // presentation displays will happen only after request.start() is called.
      // Pretend the devices are available for simplicity; or, one could implement
      // a third state for the button.

Starting a new presentation

In controller.html:

  presentBtn.onclick = () => {
    // Start new presentation.
      // The connection to the presentation will be passed to setConnection on success.
    // Otherwise, the user canceled the selection dialog or no screens were found.

Reconnect to a presentation

In the controller.html file:

<button id="reconnectBtn" style="display: none;">Reconnect</button>
  const reconnect = () => {
    // read presId from localStorage if exists
    const presId = localStorage["presId"];
    // presId is mandatory when reconnecting to a presentation.
    if (presId) {
        // The new connection to the presentation will be passed to
        // setConnection on success.
      // No connection found for presUrl and presId, or an error occurred.
  // On navigation of the controller, reconnect automatically.
  document.addEventListener("DOMContentLoaded", reconnect);
  // Or allow manual reconnection.
  reconnectBtn.onclick = reconnect;

Presentation initiation by the controlling UA

In the controller.html file:

  navigator.presentation.defaultRequest = new PresentationRequest(presUrls);
  navigator.presentation.defaultRequest.onconnectionavailable = (evt) => {

Setting presentation.defaultRequest allows the page to specify the PresentationRequest to use when the controlling UA initiates a presentation.

Monitor connection's state and exchange data

In controller.html:

<button id="disconnectBtn" style="display: none;">Disconnect</button>
<button id="stopBtn" style="display: none;">Stop</button>
<button id="reconnectBtn" style="display: none;">Reconnect</button>
  let connection;

  // The Disconnect and Stop buttons are visible if there is a connected presentation
  const stopBtn = document.querySelector("#stopBtn");
  const reconnectBtn = document.querySelector("#reconnectBtn");
  const disconnectBtn = document.querySelector("#disconnectBtn");

  stopBtn.onclick = () => {

  disconnectBtn.onclick = () => {

  function setConnection(newConnection) {
    // Disconnect from existing presentation, if not attempting to reconnect
    if (
      connection &&
      connection !== newConnection &&
      connection.state !== "closed"
    ) {
      connection.onclose = undefined;

    // Set the new connection and save the presentation ID
    connection = newConnection;
    localStorage["presId"] = connection.id;

    function showConnectedUI() {
      // Allow the user to disconnect from or terminate the presentation
      stopBtn.style.display = "inline";
      disconnectBtn.style.display = "inline";
      reconnectBtn.style.display = "none";

    function showDisconnectedUI() {
      disconnectBtn.style.display = "none";
      stopBtn.style.display = "none";
      reconnectBtn.style.display = localStorage["presId"] ? "inline" : "none";

    // Monitor the connection state
    connection.onconnect = () => {

      // Register message handler
      connection.onmessage = (message) => {
        console.log(`Received message: ${message.data}`);

      // Send initial message to presentation page
      connection.send("Say hello");

    connection.onclose = () => {
      connection = null;

    connection.onterminate = () => {
      // Remove presId from localStorage if exists
      delete localStorage["presId"];
      connection = null;

Monitor available connection(s) and say hello

In presentation.html:

const addConnection = (connection) => {
  connection.onmessage = (message) => {
    if (message.data === "Say hello") connection.send("hello");

navigator.presentation.receiver.connectionList.then((list) => {
  list.connections.forEach((connection) => {
  list.onconnectionavailable = (evt) => {

Passing locale information with a message

In the controller.html file:

  connection.send('{"string": "你好,世界!", "lang": "zh-CN"}');
  connection.send('{"string": "こんにちは、世界!", "lang": "ja"}');
  connection.send('{"string": "안녕하세요, 세계!", "lang": "ko"}');
  connection.send('{"string": "Hello, world!", "lang": "en-US"}');

In the presentation.html file:

  connection.onmessage = (message) => {
    const messageObj = JSON.parse(message.data);
    const spanElt = document.createElement("SPAN");
    spanElt.lang = messageObj.lang;
    spanElt.textContent = messageObj.string;


Browser compatibility

Desktop Mobile
Chrome Edge Firefox Internet Explorer Opera Safari WebView Android Chrome Android Firefox for Android Opera Android Safari on IOS Samsung Internet
Presentation_API 47 79 No No 34 No No 47 No 34 No 5.0
defaultRequest 47 79 No No 34 No No 47 No 34 No 5.0
receiver 59 79 No No 46 No No 59 No 43 No 7.0

See also

Presentation API polyfill contains a JavaScript polyfill of the Presentation API specification under standardization within the Second Screen Working Group at W3C. The polyfill is mostly intended for exploring how the Presentation API may be implemented on top of different presentation mechanisms.

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