The map() method creates a new array populated with the results of calling a provided function on every element in the calling array.

Try it


// Arrow function
map((element) => { /* … */ })
map((element, index) => { /* … */ })
map((element, index, array) => { /* … */ })

// Callback function
map(callbackFn, thisArg)

// Inline callback function
map(function(element) { /* … */ })
map(function(element, index) { /* … */ })
map(function(element, index, array){ /* … */ })
map(function(element, index, array) { /* … */ }, thisArg)



Function that is called for every element of arr. Each time callbackFn executes, the returned value is added to newArray.

The function is called with the following arguments:


The current element being processed in the array.


The index of the current element being processed in the array.


The array map was called upon.

thisArg Optional

Value to use as this when executing callbackFn.

Return value

A new array with each element being the result of the callback function.


map calls a provided callbackFn function once for each element in an array, in order, and constructs a new array from the results. callbackFn is invoked only for indexes of the array which have assigned values (including undefined).

It is not called for missing elements of the array; that is:

  • indexes that have never been set;
  • indexes which have been deleted.

When not to use map()

Since map builds a new array, using it when you aren't using the returned array is an anti-pattern; use forEach or for...of instead.

You shouldn't be using map if:

  • you're not using the array it returns; and/or
  • you're not returning a value from the callback.

Parameters in Detail

callbackFn is invoked with three arguments: the value of the element, the index of the element, and the array object being mapped.

If a thisArg parameter is provided, it will be used as callback's this value. Otherwise, the value undefined will be used as its this value. The this value ultimately observable by callbackFn is determined according to the usual rules for determining the this seen by a function.

map does not mutate the array on which it is called (although callbackFn, if invoked, may do so).

The range of elements processed by map is set before the first invocation of callbackFn. Elements which are assigned to indexes already visited, or to indexes outside the range, will not be visited by callbackFn. If existing elements of the array are changed after the call to map, their value will be the value at the time callbackFn visits them. Elements that are deleted after the call to map begins and before being visited are not visited.

Warning: Concurrent modification of the kind described in the previous paragraph frequently leads to hard-to-understand code and is generally to be avoided (except in special cases).

Due to the algorithm defined in the specification, if the array which map was called upon is sparse, resulting array will also be sparse keeping same indices blank.


Mapping an array of numbers to an array of square roots

The following code takes an array of numbers and creates a new array containing the square roots of the numbers in the first array.

const numbers = [1, 4, 9];
const roots = numbers.map((num) => Math.sqrt(num));

// roots is now     [1, 2, 3]
// numbers is still [1, 4, 9]

Using map to reformat objects in an array

The following code takes an array of objects and creates a new array containing the newly reformatted objects.

const kvArray = [
  { key: 1, value: 10 },
  { key: 2, value: 20 },
  { key: 3, value: 30 },

const reformattedArray = kvArray.map(({ key, value}) => ({ [key]: value }));

// reformattedArray is now [{1: 10}, {2: 20}, {3: 30}],

// kvArray is still:
// [{key: 1, value: 10},
//  {key: 2, value: 20},
//  {key: 3, value: 30}]

Mapping an array of numbers using a function containing an argument

The following code shows how map works when a function requiring one argument is used with it. The argument will automatically be assigned from each element of the array as map loops through the original array.

const numbers = [1, 4, 9];
const doubles = numbers.map((num) => num * 2);

// doubles is now   [2, 8, 18]
// numbers is still [1, 4, 9]

Using map generically

This example shows how to use map on a String to get an array of numbers representing the string's characters in UTF-16 code units:

const map = Array.prototype.map;
const charCodes = map.call('Hello World', (x) => x.charCodeAt(0));

// charCodes now equals [72, 101, 108, 108, 111, 32, 87, 111, 114, 108, 100]

Using map generically querySelectorAll

This example shows how to iterate through a collection of objects collected by querySelectorAll. This is because querySelectorAll returns a NodeList (which is a collection of objects).

In this case, we return all the selected options' values on the screen:

const elems = document.querySelectorAll('select option:checked');
const values = Array.prototype.map.call(elems, ({ value }) => value);

An easier way would be the Array.from() method.

Tricky use case

(inspired by this blog post)

It is common to use the callback with one argument (the element being traversed). Certain functions are also commonly used with one argument, even though they take additional optional arguments. These habits may lead to confusing behaviors.


['1', '2', '3'].map(parseInt);

While one might expect [1, 2, 3], the actual result is [1, NaN, NaN].

parseInt is often used with one argument, but takes two. The first is an expression and the second is the radix to the callback function, Array.prototype.map passes 3 arguments:

  • the element
  • the index
  • the array

The third argument is ignored by parseInt—but not the second one! This is the source of possible confusion.

Here is a concise example of the iteration steps:

// parseInt(string, radix) -> map(parseInt(value, index))
/*  first iteration  (index is 0): */ parseInt("1", 0);  // 1
/*  second iteration (index is 1): */ parseInt("2", 1);  // NaN
/*  third iteration  (index is 2): */ parseInt("3", 2);  // NaN

Then let's talk about solutions.

const returnInt = (element) => parseInt(element, 10);

['1', '2', '3'].map(returnInt); // [1, 2, 3]
// Actual result is an array of numbers (as expected)

// Same as above, but using the concise arrow function syntax
['1', '2', '3'].map((str) => parseInt(str)); // [1, 2, 3]

// A simpler way to achieve the above, while avoiding the "gotcha":
['1', '2', '3'].map(Number); // [1, 2, 3]

// But unlike parseInt(), Number() will also return a float or (resolved) exponential notation:
['1.1', '2.2e2', '3e300'].map(Number); // [1.1, 220, 3e+300]

// For comparison, if we use parseInt() on the array above:
['1.1', '2.2e2', '3e300'].map((str) => parseInt(str)); // [1, 2, 3]

One alternative output of the map method being called with parseInt as a parameter runs as follows:

const strings = ['10', '10', '10'];
const numbers = strings.map(parseInt);

// Actual result of [10, NaN, 2] may be unexpected based on the above description.

Mapped array contains undefined

When undefined or nothing is returned:

const numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4];
const filteredNumbers = numbers.map((num, index) => {
  if (index < 3) {
    return num;

// index goes from 0, so the filterNumbers are 1,2,3 and undefined.
// filteredNumbers is [1, 2, 3, undefined]
// numbers is still [1, 2, 3, 4]


Browser compatibility

Desktop Mobile Server
Chrome Edge Firefox Internet Explorer Opera Safari WebView Android Chrome Android Firefox for Android Opera Android Safari on IOS Samsung Internet Deno Node.js

See also

© 2005–2022 MDN contributors.
Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License v2.5 or later.