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Object.preventExtensions

The Object.preventExtensions() method prevents new properties from ever being added to an object (i.e. prevents future extensions to the object).

Syntax

Object.preventExtensions(obj)

Parameters

obj
The object which should be made non-extensible.

Return value

The object being made non-extensible.

Description

An object is extensible if new properties can be added to it. Object.preventExtensions() marks an object as no longer extensible, so that it will never have properties beyond the ones it had at the time it was marked as non-extensible. Note that the properties of a non-extensible object, in general, may still be deleted. Attempting to add new properties to a non-extensible object will fail, either silently or by throwing a TypeError (most commonly, but not exclusively, when in strict mode).

Object.preventExtensions() only prevents addition of own properties. Properties can still be added to the object prototype.

This method makes the [[prototype]] of the target immutable; any [[prototype]] re-assignment will throw a TypeError. This behavior is specific to the internal [[prototype]] property, other properties of the target object will remain mutable.

There is no way to make an object extensible again once it has been made non-extensible.

Examples

Using Object.preventExtensions

// Object.preventExtensions returns the object
// being made non-extensible.
var obj = {};
var obj2 = Object.preventExtensions(obj);
obj === obj2; // true

// Objects are extensible by default.
var empty = {};
Object.isExtensible(empty); // === true

// ...but that can be changed.
Object.preventExtensions(empty);
Object.isExtensible(empty); // === false

// Object.defineProperty throws when adding
// a new property to a non-extensible object.
var nonExtensible = { removable: true };
Object.preventExtensions(nonExtensible);
Object.defineProperty(nonExtensible, 'new', {
  value: 8675309
}); // throws a TypeError

// In strict mode, attempting to add new properties
// to a non-extensible object throws a TypeError.
function fail() {
  'use strict';
  // throws a TypeError
  nonExtensible.newProperty = 'FAIL';
}
fail();

A non-extensible object's prototype is immutable:

var fixed = Object.preventExtensions({}); 
// throws a 'TypeError'.
fixed.__proto__ = { oh: 'hai' };

Non-object coercion

In ES5, if the argument to this method is not an object (a primitive), then it will cause a TypeError. In ES2015, a non-object argument will be treated as if it was a non-extensible ordinary object, simply return it.

Object.preventExtensions(1);
// TypeError: 1 is not an object (ES5 code)

Object.preventExtensions(1);
// 1                             (ES2015 code)

Specifications

Browser compatibilityUpdate compatibility data on GitHub

Desktop
Chrome Edge Firefox Internet Explorer Opera Safari
preventExtensions 6 12 4 9 12 5.1
ES2015 behavior for non-object argument 44 12 35 11 31 9
Mobile
Android webview Chrome for Android Firefox for Android Opera for Android Safari on iOS Samsung Internet
preventExtensions 1 18 4 12 6 1.0
ES2015 behavior for non-object argument 44 44 35 32 9 4.0
Server
Node.js
preventExtensions Yes
ES2015 behavior for non-object argument Yes

See also

© 2005–2018 Mozilla Developer Network and individual contributors.
Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License v2.5 or later.
https://wiki.developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/JavaScript/Reference/Global_Objects/Object/preventExtensions