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Promise.prototype.catch()

The catch() method returns a Promise and deals with rejected cases only. It behaves the same as calling Promise.prototype.then(undefined, onRejected) (in fact, calling obj.catch(onRejected) internally calls obj.then(undefined, onRejected)). This means that you have to provide an onRejected function even if you want to fall back to an undefined result value - for example obj.catch(() => {}).

Try it

Syntax

p.catch(onRejected)

p.catch(function(reason) {
  // rejection
})

Parameters

onRejected

A Function called when the Promise is rejected. This function has one argument:

reason

The rejection reason.

The Promise returned by catch() is rejected if onRejected throws an error or returns a Promise which is itself rejected; otherwise, it is fulfilled.

Return value

Internally calls Promise.prototype.then on the object upon which it was called, passing the parameters undefined and the received onRejected handler. Returns the value of that call, which is a Promise.

Description

The catch method is used for error handling in promise composition. Since it returns a Promise, it can be chained in the same way as its sister method, then().

catch() internally calls then(). This is observable if you wrap the methods.

// overriding original Promise.prototype.then/catch just to add some logs
((Promise) => {
  const originalThen = Promise.prototype.then;
  const originalCatch = Promise.prototype.catch;

  Promise.prototype.then = function (...args) {
    console.log("Called .then on %o with arguments: %o", this, args);
    return originalThen.apply(this, args);
  };
  Promise.prototype.catch = function (...args) {
    console.error("Called .catch on %o with arguments: %o", this, args);
    return originalCatch.apply(this, args);
  };
})(Promise);

// calling catch on an already resolved promise
Promise.resolve().catch(function XXX() {});

// logs:
// Called .catch on Promise{} with arguments: Arguments{1} [0: function XXX()]
// Called .then on Promise{} with arguments: Arguments{2} [0: undefined, 1: function XXX()]

Note: The examples below are throwing instances of Error. This is considered good practice in contrast to throwing Strings; otherwise, the part doing the catching would have to perform checks to see if the argument was a string or an error, and you might lose valuable information like stack traces.

Examples

Using and chaining the catch() method

const p1 = new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
  resolve("Success");
});

p1.then((value) => {
  console.log(value); // "Success!"
  throw new Error("oh, no!");
})
  .catch((e) => {
    console.error(e.message); // "oh, no!"
  })
  .then(
    () => console.log("after a catch the chain is restored"),
    () => console.log("Not fired due to the catch")
  );

// The following behaves the same as above
p1.then((value) => {
  console.log(value); // "Success!"
  return Promise.reject("oh, no!");
})
  .catch((e) => {
    console.error(e); // "oh, no!"
  })
  .then(
    () => console.log("after a catch the chain is restored"),
    () => console.log("Not fired due to the catch")
  );

Gotchas when throwing errors

Throwing an error will call the catch method most of the time:

const p1 = new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
  throw new Error("Uh-oh!");
});

p1.catch((e) => {
  console.error(e); // "Uh-oh!"
});

Errors thrown inside asynchronous functions will act like uncaught errors:

const p2 = new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
  setTimeout(() => {
    throw new Error("Uncaught Exception!");
  }, 1000);
});

p2.catch((e) => {
  console.error(e); // This is never called
});

Errors thrown after resolve is called will be silenced:

const p3 = new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
  resolve();
  throw new Error("Silenced Exception!");
});

p3.catch((e) => {
  console.error(e); // This is never called
});

catch() is not called if the promise is fulfilled

// Create a promise which would not call onReject
const p1 = Promise.resolve("calling next");

const p2 = p1.catch((reason) => {
  // This is never called
  console.error("catch p1!");
  console.error(reason);
});

p2.then(
  (value) => {
    console.log("next promise's onFulfilled");
    console.log(value); // calling next
  },
  (reason) => {
    console.log("next promise's onRejected");
    console.log(reason);
  }
);

Specifications

Browser compatibility

Desktop Mobile Server
Chrome Edge Firefox Internet Explorer Opera Safari WebView Android Chrome Android Firefox for Android Opera Android Safari on IOS Samsung Internet Deno Node.js
catch
32
12
29
No
19
8
4.4.3
32
29
19
8
2.0
1.0
0.12.0

See also

© 2005–2022 MDN contributors.
Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License v2.5 or later.
https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/JavaScript/Reference/Global_Objects/Promise/catch