Originally, Qt Quick always relied on OpenGL (OpenGL ES 2.0 or OpenGL 2.0) to parse the scene graph and render the results to a render target
From Qt 5.8 onwards, Qt Quick also supports rendering in software, with OpenVG, and with Direct3D 12. This is realized by having additional scene graph adaptations, either in form of plugins (d3d12, openvg) or built-in to the Qt Quick library (software). The default adaptation continues to rely directly on OpenGL.
From Qt 5.14 onwards, the default adaptation gains the option of rendering via a graphics abstraction layer, the Qt Rendering Hardware Interface (RHI), provided by the QtGui module. When enabled, no direct OpenGL calls are made. Rather, the scene graph renders by using the APIs provided by the abstraction layer, which is then translated into OpenGL, Vulkan, Metal, or Direct 3D calls. Shader handling is also unified by writing shader code once, compiling to SPIR-V, and then translating to the language appropriate for the various graphics APIs.
d3d12, the RHI-based renderer is not an additional adaptation, and is always built-in. As of Qt 5.14 it can be enabled by setting the environment variable
QSG_RHI to a non-zero value before starting the application, or via QQuickWindow::setSceneGraphBackend() in combination with QSGRendererInterface::GraphicsApi. When none of this is done, OpenGL is used directly like in previous versions.
Switching to a different adaptation can be achieved in two ways:
QT_QUICK_BACKENDor the legacy
QMLSCENE_DEVICEenvironment variable before launching applications.
The following backends are supported:
""string or a QSGRendererInterface::GraphicsApi enum value different than the ones listed below.
"software"string or the QSGRendererInterface::Software enum value.
"d3d12"string or the QSGRendererInterface::Direct3D12 enum value.
"openvg"string or the QSGRendererInterface::OpenVG enum value.
To find out which backend is in use, you can enable basic scene graph information logging via the
QSG_INFO environment variable or the
qt.scenegraph.general logging category. This results in some information being printed onto the debug output, during application startup.
Note: In Qt builds with OpenGL disabled, the default adaptation is
software. This may change in future releases.
Note: Typically, adaptations other than the default one come with a set of limitations as they are unlikely to provide a feature set that's 100% compatible with OpenGL. However, these adaptations may provide their own specific advantages in certain areas. For more information on the various adaptations, refer to the sections below.
When using OpenGL directly, the default adaptation is capable of providing the full Qt Quick 2 feature set. For more details, see Default Adaptation.
When using OpenGL, Vulkan, Metal, or Direct 3D via the RHI, the default adaptation is capable of providing most features, including the full batching renderer described in Default Adaptation, but some additional features may not be available as of Qt 5.14.
The OpenVG adaptation is an alternative renderer for Qt Quick 2 that renders the contents of the scene graph using OpenVG commands to provide hardware-accelerated 2D vector and raster graphics. For more details, see OpenVG Adaptation.
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