Apply the body of this function to the argument.
the result of function application.
Checks if a value is contained in the function's domain.
the value to test
true
, iff x
is in the domain of this function, false
otherwise.
Test two objects for inequality.
true
if !(this == that), false otherwise.
Equivalent to x.hashCode
except for boxed numeric types and null
. For numerics, it returns a hash value which is consistent with value equality: if two value type instances compare as true, then ## will produce the same hash value for each of them. For null
returns a hashcode where null.hashCode
throws a NullPointerException
.
a hash value consistent with ==
The expression x == that
is equivalent to if (x eq null) that eq null else x.equals(that)
.
true
if the receiver object is equivalent to the argument; false
otherwise.
Composes this partial function with another partial function that gets applied to results of this partial function.
Note that calling isDefinedAt on the resulting partial function may apply the first partial function and execute its side effect. It is highly recommended to call applyOrElse instead of isDefinedAt / apply for efficiency.
the result type of the transformation function.
the transformation function
a partial function with the domain of this partial function narrowed by other partial function, which maps arguments x
to k(this(x))
.
Composes this partial function with a transformation function that gets applied to results of this partial function.
If the runtime type of the function is a PartialFunction
then the other andThen
method is used (note its cautions).
the result type of the transformation function.
the transformation function
a partial function with the domain of this partial function, possibly narrowed by the specified function, which maps arguments x
to k(this(x))
.
Applies this partial function to the given argument when it is contained in the function domain. Applies fallback function where this partial function is not defined.
Note that expression pf.applyOrElse(x, default)
is equivalent to
if(pf isDefinedAt x) pf(x) else default(x)
except that applyOrElse
method can be implemented more efficiently. For all partial function literals the compiler generates an applyOrElse
implementation which avoids double evaluation of pattern matchers and guards. This makes applyOrElse
the basis for the efficient implementation for many operations and scenarios, such as:
orElse
/andThen
chains does not lead to excessive apply
/isDefinedAt
evaluation
lift
and unlift
do not evaluate source functions twice on each invocation
runWith
allows efficient imperative-style combining of partial functions with conditionally applied actions For non-literal partial function classes with nontrivial isDefinedAt
method it is recommended to override applyOrElse
with custom implementation that avoids double isDefinedAt
evaluation. This may result in better performance and more predictable behavior w.r.t. side effects.
the function argument
the fallback function
the result of this function or fallback function application.
2.10
Cast the receiver object to be of type T0
.
Note that the success of a cast at runtime is modulo Scala's erasure semantics. Therefore the expression 1.asInstanceOf[String]
will throw a ClassCastException
at runtime, while the expression List(1).asInstanceOf[List[String]]
will not. In the latter example, because the type argument is erased as part of compilation it is not possible to check whether the contents of the list are of the requested type.
the receiver object.
ClassCastException
if the receiver object is not an instance of the erasure of type T0
.
Create a copy of the receiver object.
The default implementation of the clone
method is platform dependent.
a copy of the receiver object.
Composes another partial function k
with this partial function so that this partial function gets applied to results of k
.
Note that calling isDefinedAt on the resulting partial function may apply the first partial function and execute its side effect. It is highly recommended to call applyOrElse instead of isDefinedAt / apply for efficiency.
the parameter type of the transformation function.
the transformation function
a partial function with the domain of other partial function narrowed by this partial function, which maps arguments x
to this(k(x))
.
Composes two instances of Function1 in a new Function1, with this function applied last.
the type to which function g
can be applied
a function A => T1
a new function f
such that f(x) == apply(g(x))
Returns an extractor object with a unapplySeq
method, which extracts each element of a sequence data.
val firstChar: String => Option[Char] = _.headOption Seq("foo", "bar", "baz") match { case firstChar.unlift.elementWise(c0, c1, c2) => println(s"$c0, $c1, $c2") // Output: f, b, b }
Tests whether the argument (that
) is a reference to the receiver object (this
).
The eq
method implements an equivalence relation on non-null instances of AnyRef
, and has three additional properties:
x
and y
of type AnyRef
, multiple invocations of x.eq(y)
consistently returns true
or consistently returns false
.For any non-null instance x
of type AnyRef
, x.eq(null)
and null.eq(x)
returns false
.
null.eq(null)
returns true
. When overriding the equals
or hashCode
methods, it is important to ensure that their behavior is consistent with reference equality. Therefore, if two objects are references to each other (o1 eq o2
), they should be equal to each other (o1 == o2
) and they should hash to the same value (o1.hashCode == o2.hashCode
).
true
if the argument is a reference to the receiver object; false
otherwise.
The equality method for reference types. Default implementation delegates to eq
.
See also equals
in scala.Any.
true
if the receiver object is equivalent to the argument; false
otherwise.
Called by the garbage collector on the receiver object when there are no more references to the object.
The details of when and if the finalize
method is invoked, as well as the interaction between finalize
and non-local returns and exceptions, are all platform dependent.
Returns string formatted according to given format
string. Format strings are as for String.format
(@see java.lang.String.format).
Returns the runtime class representation of the object.
a class object corresponding to the runtime type of the receiver.
The hashCode method for reference types. See hashCode in scala.Any.
the hash code value for this object.
Test whether the dynamic type of the receiver object is T0
.
Note that the result of the test is modulo Scala's erasure semantics. Therefore the expression 1.isInstanceOf[String]
will return false
, while the expression List(1).isInstanceOf[List[String]]
will return true
. In the latter example, because the type argument is erased as part of compilation it is not possible to check whether the contents of the list are of the specified type.
true
if the receiver object is an instance of erasure of type T0
; false
otherwise.
Turns this partial function into a plain function returning an Option
result.
a function that takes an argument x
to Some(this(x))
if this
is defined for x
, and to None
otherwise.
Function.unlift
Equivalent to !(this eq that)
.
true
if the argument is not a reference to the receiver object; false
otherwise.
Wakes up a single thread that is waiting on the receiver object's monitor.
not specified by SLS as a member of AnyRef
Wakes up all threads that are waiting on the receiver object's monitor.
not specified by SLS as a member of AnyRef
Composes this partial function with a fallback partial function which gets applied where this partial function is not defined.
the argument type of the fallback function
the result type of the fallback function
the fallback function
a partial function which has as domain the union of the domains of this partial function and that
. The resulting partial function takes x
to this(x)
where this
is defined, and to that(x)
where it is not.
Composes this partial function with an action function which gets applied to results of this partial function. The action function is invoked only for its side effects; its result is ignored.
Note that expression pf.runWith(action)(x)
is equivalent to
if(pf isDefinedAt x) { action(pf(x)); true } else false
except that runWith
is implemented via applyOrElse
and thus potentially more efficient. Using runWith
avoids double evaluation of pattern matchers and guards for partial function literals.
the action function
a function which maps arguments x
to isDefinedAt(x)
. The resulting function runs action(this(x))
where this
is defined.
2.10
applyOrElse
.
Creates a String representation of this object. The default representation is platform dependent. On the java platform it is the concatenation of the class name, "@", and the object's hashcode in hexadecimal.
a String representation of the object.
Converts an optional function to a partial function.
Unlike Function.unlift, this UnliftOps.unlift method can be used in extractors.
val of: Int => Option[String] = { i => if (i == 2) { Some("matched by an optional function") } else { None } } util.Random.nextInt(4) match { case of.unlift(m) => // Convert an optional function to a pattern println(m) case _ => println("Not matched") }
© 2002-2019 EPFL, with contributions from Lightbend.
Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0.
https://www.scala-lang.org/api/2.13.0/scala/PartialFunction.html
A partial function of type
PartialFunction[A, B]
is a unary function where the domain does not necessarily include all values of typeA
. The functionisDefinedAt
allows to test dynamically if a value is in the domain of the function.Even if
isDefinedAt
returns true for ana: A
, callingapply(a)
may still throw an exception, so the following code is legal:It is the responsibility of the caller to call
isDefinedAt
before callingapply
, because ifisDefinedAt
is false, it is not guaranteedapply
will throw an exception to indicate an error condition. If an exception is not thrown, evaluation may result in an arbitrary value.The main distinction between
PartialFunction
and scala.Function1 is that the user of aPartialFunction
may choose to do something different with input that is declared to be outside its domain. For example:1.0
Optional Functions, PartialFunctions and extractor objects can be converted to each other as shown in the following table. | How to convert ... | to a PartialFunction | to an optional Function | to an extractor | | :---: | --- | --- | --- | | from a PartialFunction | Predef.identity | lift | Predef.identity | | from optional Function | Function.UnliftOps#unlift or Function.unlift | Predef.identity | Function.UnliftOps#unlift | | from an extractor |
{ case extractor(x) => x }
|extractor.unapply _
| Predef.identity |