Defined in header <ranges>
inline namespace /* unspecified */ {
    inline constexpr /* unspecified */ cbegin = /* unspecified */;
(since C++20)
(customization point object)
Call signature
template< class T >
    requires /* see below */
constexpr std::input_or_output_iterator auto cbegin( T&& t );
(since C++20)

Returns an iterator to the first element of the const-qualified argument.


Let CT be.

  • const std::remove_reference_t<T>& if the argument is an lvalue (i.e. T is an lvalue reference type),
  • const T otherwise.

A call to ranges::cbegin is expression-equivalent to ranges::begin(static_cast<CT&&>(t)).

The return type models std::input_or_output_iterator in both cases.

Customization point objects

The name ranges::cbegin denotes a customization point object, which is a const function object of a literal semiregular class type. For exposition purposes, the cv-unqualified version of its type is denoted as __cbegin_fn.

All instances of __cbegin_fn are equal. The effects of invoking different instances of type __cbegin_fn on the same arguments are equivalent, regardless of whether the expression denoting the instance is an lvalue or rvalue, and is const-qualified or not (however, a volatile-qualified instance is not required to be invocable). Thus, ranges::cbegin can be copied freely and its copies can be used interchangeably.

Given a set of types Args..., if std::declval<Args>()... meet the requirements for arguments to ranges::cbegin above, __cbegin_fn models

Otherwise, no function call operator of __cbegin_fn participates in overload resolution.


#include <iostream>
#include <ranges>
#include <vector>
int main()
    std::vector<int> v = {3, 1, 4};
    auto vi = std::ranges::cbegin(v);
    std::cout << *vi << '\n';
//  *vi = 42; // Error: read-only variable is not assignable
    int a[] = {-5, 10, 15};
    auto ai = std::ranges::cbegin(a);
    std::cout << *ai << '\n';
//  *ai = 42; // Error: read-only variable is not assignable



See also

returns an iterator to the beginning of a range
(customization point object)
returns an iterator to the beginning of a container or array
(function template)

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