Defined in header <ranges>
inline namespace /*unspecified*/ {
    inline constexpr /*unspecified*/ cdata = /*unspecified*/;
(since C++20)
(customization point object)
Call signature
template< class T >
    requires /* see below */
constexpr std::remove_reference_t<ranges::range_reference_t</*CT*/>>* cdata( T&& t );
(since C++20)

Returns a pointer to the first element of a contiguous range denoted by a const-qualified argument.

Let CT be.

  1. const std::remove_reference_t<T>& if the argument is an lvalue (i.e. T is an lvalue reference type),
  2. const T otherwise,

a call to ranges::cdata is expression-equivalent to ranges::data(static_cast<CT&&>(t)).

If ranges::cdata(t) is valid, then it returns a pointer to a object.


Expression e is expression-equivalent to expression f, if.

  • e and f have the same effects, and
  • either both are constant subexpressions or else neither is a constant subexpression, and
  • either both are potentially-throwing or else neither is potentially-throwing (i.e. noexcept(e) == noexcept(f)).

Customization point objects

The name ranges::cdata denotes a customization point object, which is a const function object of a literal semiregular class type. For exposition purposes, the cv-unqualified version of its type is denoted as __cdata_fn.

All instances of __cdata_fn are equal. The effects of invoking different instances of type __cdata_fn on the same arguments are equivalent, regardless of whether the expression denoting the instance is an lvalue or rvalue, and is const-qualified or not (however, a volatile-qualified instance is not required to be invocable). Thus, ranges::cdata can be copied freely and its copies can be used interchangeably.

Given a set of types Args..., if std::declval<Args>()... meet the requirements for arguments to ranges::cdata above, __cdata_fn models

Otherwise, no function call operator of __cdata_fn participates in overload resolution.


#include <cstring>
#include <iostream>
#include <ranges>
#include <string>
int main()
    std::string src {"hello world!\n"};
//  std::ranges::cdata(src)[0] = 'H'; // error, src.data() is treated as read-only
    std::ranges::data(src)[0] = 'H'; // OK, src.data() is a non-const storage
    char dst[20]; // storage for a C-style string
    std::strcpy(dst, std::ranges::cdata(src));
    // [data(src), data(src) + size(src)] is guaranteed to be an NTBS
    std::cout << dst;


Hello world!

See also

obtains a pointer to the beginning of a contiguous range
(customization point object)
obtains the pointer to the underlying array
(function template)

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