The animation-fill-mode CSS property sets how a CSS animation applies styles to its target before and after its execution.

Try it

It is often convenient to use the shorthand property animation to set all animation properties at once.


/* Single animation */
animation-fill-mode: none;
animation-fill-mode: forwards;
animation-fill-mode: backwards;
animation-fill-mode: both;

/* Multiple animations */
animation-fill-mode: none, backwards;
animation-fill-mode: both, forwards, none;

/* Global values */
animation-fill-mode: inherit;
animation-fill-mode: initial;
animation-fill-mode: revert;
animation-fill-mode: revert-layer;
animation-fill-mode: unset;



The animation will not apply any styles to the target when it's not executing. The element will instead be displayed using any other CSS rules applied to it. This is the default value.


The target will retain the computed values set by the last keyframe encountered during execution. The last keyframe depends on the value of animation-direction and animation-iteration-count:

animation-direction animation-iteration-count last keyframe encountered
normal even or odd 100% or to
reverse even or odd 0% or from
alternate even 0% or from
alternate odd 100% or to
alternate-reverse even 100% or to
alternate-reverse odd 0% or from

The animation will apply the values defined in the first relevant keyframe as soon as it is applied to the target, and retain this during the animation-delay period. The first relevant keyframe depends on the value of animation-direction:

animation-direction first relevant keyframe
normal or alternate 0% or from
reverse or alternate-reverse 100% or to

The animation will follow the rules for both forwards and backwards, thus extending the animation properties in both directions.

Note: When you specify multiple comma-separated values on an animation-* property, they are applied to the animations in the order in which the animation-names appear. For situations where the number of animations and animation-* property values do not match, see Setting multiple animation property values.

Formal definition

Initial value none
Applies to all elements, ::before and ::after pseudo-elements
Inherited no
Computed value as specified
Animation type Not animatable

Formal syntax

animation-fill-mode = 

<single-animation-fill-mode> =
none |
forwards |
backwards |


Setting fill mode

You can see the effect of animation-fill-mode in the following example. It demonstrates how you can make the animation remain in its final state rather than reverting to the original state (which is the default).


<p>Move your mouse over the gray box!</p>
<div class="demo">
  <div class="growsandstays">This grows and stays big.</div>
  <div class="grows">This just grows.</div>


.demo {
  border-top: 100px solid #ccc;
  height: 300px;

@keyframes grow {
  0% {
    font-size: 0;
  100% {
    font-size: 40px;

.demo:hover .grows {
  animation-name: grow;
  animation-duration: 3s;

.demo:hover .growsandstays {
  animation-name: grow;
  animation-duration: 3s;
  animation-fill-mode: forwards;


See CSS animations for more examples.


Browser compatibility

Desktop Mobile
Chrome Edge Firefox Internet Explorer Opera Safari WebView Android Chrome Android Firefox for Android Opera Android Safari on IOS Samsung Internet
animation-fill-mode 433 1212 49165 10 301512.1–1512–15 95 43≤37 4318 49165 301412.1–1412–14 94 4.01.0

See also

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