The bind() method creates a new function that, when called, has its this keyword set to the provided value, with a given sequence of arguments preceding any provided when the new function is called.

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bind(thisArg, arg1, /* …, */ argN)



The value to be passed as the this parameter to the target function func when the bound function is called. If the function is not in strict mode, null and undefined will be replaced with the global object, and primitive values will be converted to objects. The value is ignored if the bound function is constructed using the new operator.

arg1, …, argN Optional

Arguments to prepend to arguments provided to the bound function when invoking func.

Return value

A copy of the given function with the specified this value, and initial arguments (if provided).


The bind() function creates a new bound function. Calling the bound function generally results in the execution of its wrapped function. The bound function will store the parameters passed — which include the value of this and the first few arguments — as its internal state. These values are stored in advance, instead of being passed at call time. You can generally see const boundFn = fn.bind(thisArg, arg1, arg2) as being equivalent to const boundFn = (...restArgs) => fn.call(thisArg, arg1, arg2, ...restArgs).

A bound function may also be constructed using the new operator. Doing so acts as though the target function had instead been constructed. The provided this value is ignored, while prepended arguments are provided to the emulated function.


Creating a bound function

The simplest use of bind() is to make a function that, no matter how it is called, is called with a particular this value.

A common mistake for new JavaScript programmers is to extract a method from an object, then to later call that function and expect it to use the original object as its this (e.g., by using the method in callback-based code).

Without special care, however, the original object is usually lost. Creating a bound function from the function, using the original object, neatly solves this problem:

this.x = 9;    // 'this' refers to the global object (e.g. 'window') in non-strict mode
const module = {
  x: 81,
  getX() { return this.x; }

//  returns 81

const retrieveX = module.getX;
//  returns 9; the function gets invoked at the global scope

//  Create a new function with 'this' bound to module
//  New programmers might confuse the
//  global variable 'x' with module's property 'x'
const boundGetX = retrieveX.bind(module);
//  returns 81

Note: If you run this example in strict mode (e.g. in ECMAScript modules, or through the "use strict" directive), the global this value will be undefined, causing the retrieveX call to fail.

If you run this in a Node CommonJS module, the top-scope this will be pointing to module.exports instead of globalThis, regardless of being in strict mode or not. However, in functions, the reference of unbound this still follows the rule of "globalThis in non-strict, undefined in strict". Therefore, in non-strict mode (default), retrieveX will return undefined because this.x = 9 is writing to a different object (module.exports) from what getX is reading from (globalThis).

Partially applied functions

The next simplest use of bind() is to make a function with pre-specified initial arguments.

These arguments (if any) follow the provided this value and are then inserted at the start of the arguments passed to the target function, followed by whatever arguments are passed to the bound function at the time it is called.

function list(...args) {
  return args;

function addArguments(arg1, arg2) {
  return arg1 + arg2;

const list1 = list(1, 2, 3);
//  [1, 2, 3]

const result1 = addArguments(1, 2);
//  3

// Create a function with a preset leading argument
const leadingThirtySevenList = list.bind(null, 37);

// Create a function with a preset first argument.
const addThirtySeven = addArguments.bind(null, 37);

const list2 = leadingThirtySevenList();
//  [37]

const list3 = leadingThirtySevenList(1, 2, 3);
//  [37, 1, 2, 3]

const result2 = addThirtySeven(5);
//  37 + 5 = 42

const result3 = addThirtySeven(5, 10);
//  37 + 5 = 42
//  (the second argument is ignored)

With setTimeout()

By default within setTimeout(), the this keyword will be set to the window (or global) object. When working with class methods that require this to refer to class instances, you may explicitly bind this to the callback function, in order to maintain the instance.

class LateBloomer {
  constructor() {
    this.petalCount = Math.floor(Math.random() * 12) + 1;
  bloom() {
    // Declare bloom after a delay of 1 second
    setTimeout(this.declare.bind(this), 1000);
  declare() {
    console.log(`I am a beautiful flower with ${this.petalCount} petals!`);

const flower = new LateBloomer();
//  after 1 second, calls 'flower.declare()'

Bound functions used as constructors

Warning: This section demonstrates JavaScript capabilities and documents some edge cases of the bind() method.

The methods shown below are not the best way to do things, and probably should not be used in any production environment.

Bound functions are automatically suitable for use with the new operator to construct new instances created by the target function. When a bound function is used to construct a value, the provided this is ignored.

However, provided arguments are still prepended to the constructor call:

function Point(x, y) {
  this.x = x;
  this.y = y;

Point.prototype.toString = function () {
  return `${this.x},${this.y}`;

const p = new Point(1, 2);
// '1,2'

let YAxisPoint = Point.bind(null, 0/*x*/);

const emptyObj = {};
YAxisPoint = Point.bind(emptyObj, 0/*x*/);

const axisPoint = new YAxisPoint(5);
axisPoint.toString();                    // '0,5'

axisPoint instanceof Point;              // true
axisPoint instanceof YAxisPoint;         // true
new YAxisPoint(17, 42) instanceof Point; // true

Note that you need not do anything special to create a bound function for use with new.

The corollary is that you need not do anything special to create a bound function to be called plainly, even if you would rather require the bound function to only be called using new.

//  Example can be run directly in your JavaScript console
//  ...continued from above

//  Can still be called as a normal function
//  (although usually this is undesired)

// >  '0,13'

If you wish to support the use of a bound function only using new, or only by calling it, the target function must enforce that restriction.

Creating shortcuts

bind() is also helpful in cases where you want to create a shortcut to a function which requires a specific this value.

Take Array.prototype.slice(), for example, which you want to use for converting an array-like object to a real array. You could create a shortcut like this:

const slice = Array.prototype.slice;

// ...


With bind(), this can be simplified.

In the following piece of code, slice() is a bound function to the apply() function of Function, with the this value set to the slice() function of Array.prototype. This means that additional apply() calls can be eliminated:

//  same as "slice" in the previous example
const unboundSlice = Array.prototype.slice;
const slice = Function.prototype.apply.bind(unboundSlice);

// ...



Browser compatibility

Desktop Mobile Server
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See also

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