The null value represents the intentional absence of any object value. It is one of JavaScript's primitive values and is treated as falsy for boolean operations.

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The value null is written with a literal: null. null is not an identifier for a property of the global object, like undefined can be. Instead, null expresses a lack of identification, indicating that a variable points to no object. In APIs, null is often retrieved in a place where an object can be expected but no object is relevant.

// foo does not exist. It is not defined and has never been initialized:
foo; //ReferenceError: foo is not defined
// foo is known to exist now but it has no type or value:
const foo = null;
foo; //null


Difference between null and undefined

When checking for null or undefined, beware of the differences between equality (==) and identity (===) operators, as the former performs type-conversion.

typeof null; // "object" (not "null" for legacy reasons)
typeof undefined; // "undefined"
null === undefined; // false
null == undefined; // true
null === null; // true
null == null; // true
!null; // true
Number.isNaN(1 + null); // false
Number.isNaN(1 + undefined); // true


Browser compatibility

Desktop Mobile Server
Chrome Edge Firefox Opera Safari Chrome Android Firefox for Android Opera Android Safari on IOS Samsung Internet WebView Android Deno Node.js
null 1 12 1 3 1 18 4 10.1 1 1.0 4.4 1.0 0.10.0

See also

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