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class PrettyPrint

Parent:
Object

This class implements a pretty printing algorithm. It finds line breaks and nice indentations for grouped structure.

By default, the class assumes that primitive elements are strings and each byte in the strings have single column in width. But it can be used for other situations by giving suitable arguments for some methods:

There are several candidate uses:

  • text formatting using proportional fonts

  • multibyte characters which has columns different to number of bytes

  • non-string formatting

Bugs

  • Box based formatting?

  • Other (better) model/algorithm?

Report any bugs at bugs.ruby-lang.org

References

Christian Lindig, Strictly Pretty, March 2000, www.st.cs.uni-sb.de/~lindig/papers/#pretty

Philip Wadler, A prettier printer, March 1998, homepages.inf.ed.ac.uk/wadler/topics/language-design.html#prettier

Author

Tanaka Akira <[email protected]>

Attributes

genspace[R]

A lambda or Proc, that takes one argument, of an Integer, and returns the corresponding number of spaces.

By default this is:

lambda {|n| ' ' * n}
group_queue[R]

The PrettyPrint::GroupQueue of groups in stack to be pretty printed

indent[R]

The number of spaces to be indented

maxwidth[R]

The maximum width of a line, before it is separated in to a newline

This defaults to 79, and should be an Integer

newline[R]

The value that is appended to output to add a new line.

This defaults to “n”, and should be String

output[R]

The output object.

This defaults to '', and should accept the << method

Public Class Methods

format(output=''.dup, maxwidth=79, newline="\n", genspace=lambda {|n| ' ' * n}) { |q| ... } Show source
# File lib/prettyprint.rb, line 45
def PrettyPrint.format(output=''.dup, maxwidth=79, newline="\n", genspace=lambda {|n| ' ' * n})
  q = PrettyPrint.new(output, maxwidth, newline, &genspace)
  yield q
  q.flush
  output
end

This is a convenience method which is same as follows:

begin
  q = PrettyPrint.new(output, maxwidth, newline, &genspace)
  ...
  q.flush
  output
end
new(output=''.dup, maxwidth=79, newline="\n", &genspace) Show source
# File lib/prettyprint.rb, line 82
def initialize(output=''.dup, maxwidth=79, newline="\n", &genspace)
  @output = output
  @maxwidth = maxwidth
  @newline = newline
  @genspace = genspace || lambda {|n| ' ' * n}

  @output_width = 0
  @buffer_width = 0
  @buffer = []

  root_group = Group.new(0)
  @group_stack = [root_group]
  @group_queue = GroupQueue.new(root_group)
  @indent = 0
end

Creates a buffer for pretty printing.

output is an output target. If it is not specified, '' is assumed. It should have a << method which accepts the first argument obj of PrettyPrint#text, the first argument sep of PrettyPrint#breakable, the first argument newline of PrettyPrint.new, and the result of a given block for PrettyPrint.new.

maxwidth specifies maximum line length. If it is not specified, 79 is assumed. However actual outputs may overflow maxwidth if long non-breakable texts are provided.

newline is used for line breaks. “n” is used if it is not specified.

The block is used to generate spaces. {|width| ' ' * width} is used if it is not given.

singleline_format(output=''.dup, maxwidth=nil, newline=nil, genspace=nil) { |q| ... } Show source
# File lib/prettyprint.rb, line 59
def PrettyPrint.singleline_format(output=''.dup, maxwidth=nil, newline=nil, genspace=nil)
  q = SingleLine.new(output)
  yield q
  output
end

This is similar to PrettyPrint::format but the result has no breaks.

maxwidth, newline and genspace are ignored.

The invocation of breakable in the block doesn't break a line and is treated as just an invocation of text.

Public Instance Methods

break_outmost_groups() Show source
# File lib/prettyprint.rb, line 160
def break_outmost_groups
  while @maxwidth < @output_width + @buffer_width
    return unless group = @group_queue.deq
    until group.breakables.empty?
      data = @buffer.shift
      @output_width = data.output(@output, @output_width)
      @buffer_width -= data.width
    end
    while [email protected]? && Text === @buffer.first
      text = @buffer.shift
      @output_width = text.output(@output, @output_width)
      @buffer_width -= text.width
    end
  end
end

Breaks the buffer into lines that are shorter than maxwidth

breakable(sep=' ', width=sep.length) Show source
# File lib/prettyprint.rb, line 224
def breakable(sep=' ', width=sep.length)
  group = @group_stack.last
  if group.break?
    flush
    @output << @newline
    @output << @genspace.call(@indent)
    @output_width = @indent
    @buffer_width = 0
  else
    @buffer << Breakable.new(sep, width, self)
    @buffer_width += width
    break_outmost_groups
  end
end

This says “you can break a line here if necessary”, and a width-column text sep is inserted if a line is not broken at the point.

If sep is not specified, “ ” is used.

If width is not specified, sep.length is used. You will have to specify this when sep is a multibyte character, for example.

current_group() Show source
# File lib/prettyprint.rb, line 155
def current_group
  @group_stack.last
end

Returns the group most recently added to the stack.

Contrived example:

out = ""
=> ""
q = PrettyPrint.new(out)
=> #<PrettyPrint:0x82f85c0 @output="", @maxwidth=79, @newline="\n", @genspace=#<Proc:[email protected]/home/vbatts/.rvm/rubies/ruby-head/lib/ruby/2.0.0/prettyprint.rb:82 (lambda)>, @output_width=0, @buffer_width=0, @buffer=[], @group_stack=[#<PrettyPrint::Group:0x82f8138 @depth=0, @breakables=[], @break=false>], @group_queue=#<PrettyPrint::GroupQueue:0x82fb7c0 @queue=[[#<PrettyPrint::Group:0x82f8138 @depth=0, @breakables=[], @break=false>]]>, @indent=0>
q.group {
  q.text q.current_group.inspect
  q.text q.newline
  q.group(q.current_group.depth + 1) {
    q.text q.current_group.inspect
    q.text q.newline
    q.group(q.current_group.depth + 1) {
      q.text q.current_group.inspect
      q.text q.newline
      q.group(q.current_group.depth + 1) {
        q.text q.current_group.inspect
        q.text q.newline
      }
    }
  }
}
=> 284
 puts out
#<PrettyPrint::Group:0x8354758 @depth=1, @breakables=[], @break=false>
#<PrettyPrint::Group:0x8354550 @depth=2, @breakables=[], @break=false>
#<PrettyPrint::Group:0x83541cc @depth=3, @breakables=[], @break=false>
#<PrettyPrint::Group:0x8347e54 @depth=4, @breakables=[], @break=false>
fill_breakable(sep=' ', width=sep.length) Show source
# File lib/prettyprint.rb, line 212
def fill_breakable(sep=' ', width=sep.length)
  group { breakable sep, width }
end

This is similar to breakable except the decision to break or not is determined individually.

Two fill_breakable under a group may cause 4 results: (break,break), (break,non-break), (non-break,break), (non-break,non-break). This is different to breakable because two breakable under a group may cause 2 results: (break,break), (non-break,non-break).

The text sep is inserted if a line is not broken at this point.

If sep is not specified, “ ” is used.

If width is not specified, sep.length is used. You will have to specify this when sep is a multibyte character, for example.

flush() Show source
# File lib/prettyprint.rb, line 288
def flush
  @buffer.each {|data|
    @output_width = data.output(@output, @output_width)
  }
  @buffer.clear
  @buffer_width = 0
end

outputs buffered data.

group(indent=0, open_obj='', close_obj='', open_width=open_obj.length, close_width=close_obj.length) { || ... } Show source
# File lib/prettyprint.rb, line 249
def group(indent=0, open_obj='', close_obj='', open_width=open_obj.length, close_width=close_obj.length)
  text open_obj, open_width
  group_sub {
    nest(indent) {
      yield
    }
  }
  text close_obj, close_width
end

Groups line break hints added in the block. The line break hints are all to be used or not.

If indent is specified, the method call is regarded as nested by nest(indent) { … }.

If open_obj is specified, text open_obj, open_width is called before grouping. If close_obj is specified, text close_obj, close_width is called after grouping.

group_sub() { || ... } Show source
# File lib/prettyprint.rb, line 260
def group_sub
  group = Group.new(@group_stack.last.depth + 1)
  @group_stack.push group
  @group_queue.enq group
  begin
    yield
  ensure
    @group_stack.pop
    if group.breakables.empty?
      @group_queue.delete group
    end
  end
end

Takes a block and queues a new group that is indented 1 level further.

nest(indent) { || ... } Show source
# File lib/prettyprint.rb, line 277
def nest(indent)
  @indent += indent
  begin
    yield
  ensure
    @indent -= indent
  end
end

Increases left margin after newline with indent for line breaks added in the block.

text(obj, width=obj.length) Show source
# File lib/prettyprint.rb, line 180
def text(obj, width=obj.length)
  if @buffer.empty?
    @output << obj
    @output_width += width
  else
    text = @buffer.last
    unless Text === text
      text = Text.new
      @buffer << text
    end
    text.add(obj, width)
    @buffer_width += width
    break_outmost_groups
  end
end

This adds obj as a text of width columns in width.

If width is not specified, obj.length is used.

Ruby Core © 1993–2020 Yukihiro Matsumoto
Licensed under the Ruby License.
Ruby Standard Library © contributors
Licensed under their own licenses.