The C++ numerics library includes common mathematical functions and types, as well as optimized numeric arrays and support for random number generation.
The header <cmath>
provides standard C library mathematical functions such as std::fabs
, std::sqrt
, and std::sin
.
The header <cmath>
also provides several mathematical special functions such as std::beta
, std::hermite
, and std::cyl_bessel_i
.
Defined in header <complex> 


a complex number type (class template) 
Defined in header <valarray> 


numeric arrays, array masks and array slices (class template) 
The header <numeric>
provides numeric algorithms below:
Defined in header <numeric> 


(C++17)  constexpr function template returning the greatest common divisor of two integers (function template) 
(C++17)  constexpr function template returning the least common multiple of two integers (function template) 
Defined in header <numeric> 


(C++20)  midpoint between two numbers or pointers (function template) 
Defined in header <cmath> 

(C++20)  linear interpolation function (function) 
Defined in header <numeric> 


(C++11)  fills a range with successive increments of the starting value (function template) 
sums up a range of elements (function template) 

(C++17)  similar to std::accumulate , except out of order (function template) 
(C++17)  applies a functor, then reduces out of order (function template) 
computes the inner product of two ranges of elements (function template) 

computes the differences between adjacent elements in a range (function template) 

computes the partial sum of a range of elements (function template) 

(C++17)  similar to std::partial_sum , includes the ith input element in the ith sum (function template) 
(C++17)  similar to std::partial_sum , excludes the ith input element from the ith sum (function template) 
(C++17)  applies a functor, then calculates inclusive scan (function template) 
(C++17)  applies a functor, then calculates exclusive scan (function template) 
The header <random>
defines pseudorandom number generators and numerical distributions. The header <cstdlib>
also includes Cstyle random number generation via std::srand
and std::rand
.
The header <ratio>
provides types and functions for manipulating and storing compiletime ratios.
The header <cfenv>
defines flags and functions related to exceptional floatingpoint state, such as overflow and division by zero.
The header <bit>
provides several function templates to access, manipulate, and process individual bits and bit sequences.
Defined in header <bit> 


Defined in namespace std 

reinterpret the object representation of one type as that of another (function template) 

checks if a number is an integral power of two (function template) 

finds the smallest integral power of two not less than the given value (function template) 

finds the largest integral power of two not greater than the given value (function template) 

finds the smallest number of bits needed to represent the given value (function template) 
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