std::ranges::views::single, std::ranges::single_view

Defined in header <ranges>
template< std::copy_constructible T >
  requires std::is_object_v<T>
class single_view : public ranges::view_interface<single_view<T>>
(1) (since C++20)
namespace views {
    inline constexpr /*unspecified*/ single = /*unspecified*/;
(2) (since C++20)
Call signature
template< class T >
    requires /* see below */
constexpr /*see below*/ single( T&& t );
(since C++20)
1) Produces a view that contains exactly one element of a specified value.
2) The expression views::single(e) is expression-equivalent to single_view<std::decay_t<decltype((e))>>(e) for any suitable subexpression e.

Typical implementations of single_view store a single member of type copyable-box<T>. For description purposes, this member is hereinafter called value_.

The lifetime of the element is bound to the parent single_view. Copying single_view makes a copy of the element.


Expression e is expression-equivalent to expression f, if.

  • e and f have the same effects, and
  • either both are constant subexpressions or else neither is a constant subexpression, and
  • either both are potentially-throwing or else neither is potentially-throwing (i.e. noexcept(e) == noexcept(f)).

Customization point objects

The name views::single denotes a customization point object, which is a const function object of a literal semiregular class type. For exposition purposes, the cv-unqualified version of its type is denoted as __single_fn.

All instances of __single_fn are equal. The effects of invoking different instances of type __single_fn on the same arguments are equivalent, regardless of whether the expression denoting the instance is an lvalue or rvalue, and is const-qualified or not (however, a volatile-qualified instance is not required to be invocable). Thus, views::single can be copied freely and its copies can be used interchangeably.

Given a set of types Args..., if std::declval<Args>()... meet the requirements for arguments to views::single above, __single_fn models

Otherwise, no function call operator of __single_fn participates in overload resolution.

Member functions

constructs a single_view
(public member function)
returns a pointer to the element
(public member function)
returns a pointer past the element
(public member function)
[static] (C++20)
returns 1 (one)
(public static member function)
returns a pointer to the element
(public member function)
Inherited from std::ranges::view_interface
Returns whether the derived view is empty. Provided if it satisfies sized_range or forward_range.
(public member function of std::ranges::view_interface<D>)
Returns whether the derived view is not empty. Provided if ranges::empty is applicable to it.
(public member function of std::ranges::view_interface<D>)
Returns the first element in the derived view. Provided if it satisfies forward_range.
(public member function of std::ranges::view_interface<D>)
Returns the last element in the derived view. Provided if it satisfies bidirectional_range and common_range.
(public member function of std::ranges::view_interface<D>)
Returns the nth element in the derived view. Provided if it satisfies random_access_range.
(public member function of std::ranges::view_interface<D>)


single_view() requires std::default_initializable<T> = default;
(1) (since C++20)
constexpr explicit single_view( const T& t );
(2) (since C++20)
constexpr explicit single_view( T&& t );
(3) (since C++20)
template< class... Args >
  requires std::constructible_from<T, Args...>
constexpr explicit single_view( std::in_place_t, Args&&... args );
(4) (since C++20)

Constructs a single_view.

1) Default initializes value_, which value-initializes its contained value.
2) Initializes value_ with t.
3) Initializes value_ with std::move(t).
4) Initializes value_ as if by value_{std::in_place, std::forward<Args>(args)...}.


constexpr T* begin() noexcept;
constexpr const T* begin() const noexcept;
(since C++20)

Equivalent to return data();.


constexpr T* end() noexcept;
constexpr const T* end() const noexcept;
(since C++20)

Equivalent to return data() + 1;.


static constexpr std::size_t size() noexcept;
(since C++20)

Equivalent to return 1;.

This is a static function. This makes single_view model /*tiny-range*/ as required by split_view.


constexpr T* data() noexcept;
constexpr const T* data() const noexcept;
(since C++20)

Returns a pointer to the contained value of value_. The behavior is undefined if value_ does not contains a value.

Deduction guides

template<class T>
single_view(T) -> single_view<T>;
(since C++20)


For a single_view, the inherited empty member function always returns false, and the inherited operator bool conversion function always returns true.


#include <iostream>
#include <iomanip>
#include <ranges>
#include <string>
#include <tuple>
int main()
    constexpr std::ranges::single_view sv1{3.1415}; // uses (const T&) constructor
    static_assert(not sv1.empty());
    std::cout << "1) *sv1.data(): " << *sv1.data() << '\n'
              << "2) *sv1.begin(): " << *sv1.begin() << '\n'
              << "3)  sv1.size(): " << sv1.size() << '\n'
              << "4)  distance: " << std::distance(sv1.begin(), sv1.end()) << '\n';
    std::string str{"C++20"};
    std::cout << "5)  str = " << std::quoted(str) << '\n';
    std::ranges::single_view sv2{std::move(str)}; // uses (T&&) constructor
    std::cout << "6) *sv2.data(): " << quoted(*sv2.data()) << '\n'
              << "7)  str = " << quoted(str) << '\n';
    std::ranges::single_view<std::tuple<int, double, std::string>>
        sv3{std::in_place, 42, 3.14, "😄"}; // uses (std::in_place_t, Args&&... args)
    std::cout << "8)  sv3 holds a tuple: { "
              << std::get<0>(sv3[0]) << ", "
              << std::get<1>(sv3[0]) << ", "
              << std::get<2>(sv3[0]) << " }\n";


1) *sv1.data(): 3.1415
2) *sv1.begin(): 3.1415
3)  sv1.size(): 1
4)  distance: 1
5)  str = "C++20"
6) *sv2.data(): "C++20"
7)  str = ""
8)  sv3 holds a tuple: { 42, 3.14, 😄 }

Defect reports

The following behavior-changing defect reports were applied retroactively to previously published C++ standards.

DR Applied to Behavior as published Correct behavior
LWG 3428 C++20 single_view was convertible from std::in_place_t the constructor is made explicit
P2367R0 C++20 deduction guides for single_view failed to decay the argument;
views::single copied but not wrapped a single_view
a decaying guide provided;
made always wrapping

See also

an empty view with no elements
(class template) (variable template)
a view over the subranges obtained from splitting another view using a delimiter
(class template) (range adaptor object)

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