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:visited

The :visited CSS pseudo-class represents links that the user has already visited. For privacy reasons, the styles that can be modified using this selector are very limited.

/* Selects any <a> that has been visited */
a:visited {
  color: green;
}

Styles defined by the :visited pseudo-class will be overridden by any subsequent link-related pseudo-class (:link, :hover, or :active) that has at least equal specificity. To style links appropriately, put the :visited rule after the :link rule but before the :hover and :active rules, as defined by the LVHA-order: :link:visited:hover:active.

Privacy restrictions

For privacy reasons, browsers strictly limit which styles you can apply using this pseudo-class, and how they can be used:

Note: For more information on these limitations and the reasons behind them, see Privacy and the :visited selector.

Syntax

:visited

Examples

Properties that would otherwise have no color or be transparent cannot be modified with :visited. Of the properties that can be set with this pseudo-class, your browser probably has a default value for color and column-rule-color only. Thus, if you want to modify the other properties, you'll need to give them a base value outside the :visited selector.

HTML

<a href="#test-visited-link">Have you visited this link yet?</a><br>
<a href="">You've already visited this link.</a>

CSS

a {
  /* Specify non-transparent defaults to certain properties,
     allowing them to be styled with the :visited state */
  background-color: white;
  border: 1px solid white;
}

a:visited {
  background-color: yellow;
  border-color: hotpink;
  color: hotpink;
}

Result

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
HTML Living Standard
The definition of ':visited' in that specification.
Living Standard
Selectors Level 4
The definition of ':visited' in that specification.
Working Draft No change.
Selectors Level 3
The definition of ':visited' in that specification.
Recommendation No change.
CSS Level 2 (Revision 1)
The definition of ':visited' in that specification.
Recommendation Lifts the restriction to only apply :visited to the <a> element. Lets browsers restrict its behavior for privacy reasons.
CSS Level 1
The definition of ':visited' in that specification.
Recommendation Initial definition.

Browser compatibilityUpdate compatibility data on GitHub

Desktop
Chrome Edge Firefox Internet Explorer Opera Safari
:visited 1 12 1 4 3.5 1
:visited no longer matches <link> elements 1
1
Chromium has never matched <link> elements with link pseudo-classes.
12 70 No 15
15
Chromium has never matched <link> elements with link pseudo-classes.
12
Restrict CSS properties allowed in a statement using :visited for privacy 6 12 4 8 15 5
Mobile
Android webview Chrome for Android Firefox for Android Opera for Android Safari on iOS Samsung Internet
:visited 4.4 18 4 10.1 1 1.0
:visited no longer matches <link> elements 4.4
4.4
Chromium has never matched <link> elements with link pseudo-classes.
18
18
Chromium has never matched <link> elements with link pseudo-classes.
No 14
14
Chromium has never matched <link> elements with link pseudo-classes.
12 1.0
1.0
Chromium has never matched <link> elements with link pseudo-classes.
Restrict CSS properties allowed in a statement using :visited for privacy 37 18 4 14 4.2 1.0

See also

© 2005–2020 Mozilla and individual contributors.
Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License v2.5 or later.
https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/CSS/:visited