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New in version 1.9.0: The css, url, and html_attr strategies were added in Twig 1.9.0.

New in version 1.14.0: The ability to define custom escapers was added in Twig 1.14.0.

The escape filter escapes a string for safe insertion into the final output. It supports different escaping strategies depending on the template context.

By default, it uses the HTML escaping strategy:

{{ user.username|escape }}

For convenience, the e filter is defined as an alias:

{{ user.username|e }}

The escape filter can also be used in other contexts than HTML thanks to an optional argument which defines the escaping strategy to use:

{{ user.username|e }}
{# is equivalent to #}
{{ user.username|e('html') }}

And here is how to escape variables included in JavaScript code:

{{ user.username|escape('js') }}
{{ user.username|e('js') }}

The escape filter supports the following escaping strategies:

  • html: escapes a string for the HTML body context.
  • js: escapes a string for the JavaScript context.
  • css: escapes a string for the CSS context. CSS escaping can be applied to any string being inserted into CSS and escapes everything except alphanumerics.
  • url: escapes a string for the URI or parameter contexts. This should not be used to escape an entire URI; only a subcomponent being inserted.
  • html_attr: escapes a string for the HTML attribute context.


Internally, escape uses the PHP native htmlspecialchars function for the HTML escaping strategy.


When using automatic escaping, Twig tries to not double-escape a variable when the automatic escaping strategy is the same as the one applied by the escape filter; but that does not work when using a variable as the escaping strategy:

{% set strategy = 'html' %}

{% autoescape 'html' %}
    {{ var|escape('html') }}   {# won't be double-escaped #}
    {{ var|escape(strategy) }} {# will be double-escaped #}
{% endautoescape %}

When using a variable as the escaping strategy, you should disable automatic escaping:

{% set strategy = 'html' %}

{% autoescape 'html' %}
    {{ var|escape(strategy)|raw }} {# won't be double-escaped #}
{% endautoescape %}

Custom Escapers

You can define custom escapers by calling the setEscaper() method on the core extension instance. The first argument is the escaper name (to be used in the escape call) and the second one must be a valid PHP callable:

$twig = new Twig_Environment($loader);
$twig->getExtension('Twig_Extension_Core')->setEscaper('csv', 'csv_escaper');

// before Twig 1.26
$twig->getExtension('core')->setEscaper('csv', 'csv_escaper');

When called by Twig, the callable receives the Twig environment instance, the string to escape, and the charset.


Built-in escapers cannot be overridden mainly they should be considered as the final implementation and also for better performance.


  • strategy: The escaping strategy
  • charset: The string charset

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