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Template variables

Template variables help you use data from one part of a template in another part of the template. With template variables, you can perform tasks such as respond to user input or finely tune your application's forms.

A template variable can refer to the following:

See the live example for a working example containing the code snippets in this guide.

Syntax

In the template, you use the hash symbol, #, to declare a template variable. The following template variable, #phone, declares a phone variable on an <input> element.

<input #phone placeholder="phone number" />

You can refer to a template variable anywhere in the component's template. Here, a <button> further down the template refers to the phone variable.

<input #phone placeholder="phone number" />

<!-- lots of other elements -->

<!-- phone refers to the input element; pass its `value` to an event handler -->
<button (click)="callPhone(phone.value)">Call</button>

How Angular assigns values to template variables

Angular assigns a template variable a value based on where you declare the variable:

  • If you declare the variable on a component, the variable refers to the component instance.
  • If you declare the variable on a standard HTML tag, the variable refers to the element.
  • If you declare the variable on an <ng-template> element, the variable refers to a TemplateRef instance, which represents the template. For more information on <ng-template>, see the ng-template section of Structural directives.
  • If the variable specifies a name on the right-hand side, such as #var="ngModel", the variable refers to the directive or component on the element with a matching exportAs name.

Using NgForm with template variables

In most cases, Angular sets the template variable's value to the element on which it occurs. In the previous example, phone refers to the phone number <input>. The button's click handler passes the <input> value to the component's callPhone() method.

The NgForm directive demonstrates getting a reference to a different value by reference a directive's exportAs name. In the following example, the template variable, itemForm, appears three times separated by HTML.

<form #itemForm="ngForm" (ngSubmit)="onSubmit(itemForm)">
  <label for="name">Name <input class="form-control" name="name" ngModel required />
  </label>
  <button type="submit">Submit</button>
</form>

<div [hidden]="!itemForm.form.valid">
  <p>{{ submitMessage }}</p>
</div>

Without the ngForm attribute value, the reference value of itemForm would be the HTMLFormElement, <form>. There is, however, a difference between a Component and a Directive in that Angular references a Component without specifying the attribute value, and a Directive does not change the implicit reference, or the element.

With NgForm, itemForm is a reference to the NgForm directive with the ability to track the value and validity of every control in the form.

Unlike the native <form> element, the NgForm directive has a form property. The NgForm form property allows you to disable the submit button if the itemForm.form.valid is invalid.

Template variable scope

You can refer to a template variable anywhere within its surrounding template. Structural directives, such as *ngIf and *ngFor, or <ng-template> act as a template boundary. You cannot access template variables outside of these boundaries.

Define a variable only once in the template so the runtime value remains predictable.

Accessing in a nested template

An inner template can access template variables that the outer template defines.

In the following example, changing the text in the <input> changes the value in the <span> because Angular immediately updates changes through the template variable, ref1.

<input #ref1 type="text" [(ngModel)]="firstExample" />
<span *ngIf="true">Value: {{ ref1.value }}</span>

In this case, there is an implied <ng-template> around the <span> and the definition of the variable is outside of it. Accessing a template variable from the parent template works because the child template inherits the context from the parent template.

Rewriting the above code in a more verbose form explicitly shows the <ng-template>.

<input #ref1 type="text" [(ngModel)]="firstExample" />

<!-- New template -->
<ng-template [ngIf]="true">
  <!-- Since the context is inherited, the value is available to the new template -->
  <span>Value: {{ ref1.value }}</span>
</ng-template>

However, accessing a template variable from outside the parent template doesn't work.

<input *ngIf="true" #ref2 type="text" [(ngModel)]="secondExample" />
  <span>Value: {{ ref2?.value }}</span> <!-- doesn't work -->

The verbose form shows that ref2 is outside the parent template.

<ng-template [ngIf]="true">
  <!-- The reference is defined within a template -->
  <input #ref2 type="text" [(ngModel)]="secondExample" />
</ng-template>
<!-- ref2 accessed from outside that template doesn't work -->
<span>Value: {{ ref2?.value }}</span>

Consider the following example that uses *ngFor.

<ng-container *ngFor="let i of [1,2]">
  <input #ref type="text" [value]="i" />
</ng-container>
{{ ref.value }}

Here, ref.value doesn't work. The structural directive, *ngFor instantiates the template twice because *ngFor iterates over the two items in the array. It is impossible to define what the ref.value reference signifies.

With structural directives, such as *ngFor or *ngIf, there is no way for Angular to know if a template is ever instantiated.

As a result, Angular isn't able to access the value and returns an error.

Accessing a template variable within <ng-template>

When you declare the variable on an <ng-template>, the variable refers to a TemplateRef instance, which represents the template.

<ng-template #ref3></ng-template>
<button (click)="log(ref3)">Log type of #ref</button>

In this example, clicking the button calls the log() function, which outputs the value of #ref3 to the console. Because the #ref variable is on an <ng-template>, the value is TemplateRef.

The following is the expanded browser console output of the TemplateRef() function with the name of TemplateRef.

▼ ƒ TemplateRef()
name: "TemplateRef"
__proto__: Function

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Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0.
https://angular.io/guide/template-reference-variables