The text-emphasis-position CSS property sets where emphasis marks are drawn. Like ruby text, if there isn't enough room for emphasis marks, the line height is increased.

Try it


/* Initial value */
text-emphasis-position: over right;

/* Keywords value */
text-emphasis-position: over left;
text-emphasis-position: under right;
text-emphasis-position: under left;

text-emphasis-position: left over;
text-emphasis-position: right under;
text-emphasis-position: left under;

/* Global values */
text-emphasis-position: inherit;
text-emphasis-position: initial;
text-emphasis-position: revert;
text-emphasis-position: revert-layer;
text-emphasis-position: unset;



Draws marks over the text in horizontal writing mode.


Draws marks under the text in horizontal writing mode.

Draws marks to the right of the text in vertical writing mode.


Draws marks to the left of the text in vertical writing mode.


The preferred position of emphasis marks depends on the language. In Japanese for example, the preferred position is over right. In Chinese, on the other hand, the preferred position is under right. The informative table below summarizes the preferred emphasis mark positions for Chinese, Mongolian and Japanese:

Preferred emphasis mark and ruby position
Language Preferred position Illustration
Horizontal Vertical
Japanese over right Emphasis marks appear over each emphasized character in horizontal Japanese text. Emphasis marks appear on the right of each emphasized character in vertical Japanese text.
Chinese under right Emphasis marks appear below each emphasized character in horizontal Simplified Chinese text.

Note: The text-emphasis-position cannot be set, and therefore are not reset either, using the text-emphasis shorthand property.

Formal definition

Initial value over right
Applies to all elements
Inherited no
Computed value as specified
Animation type discrete

Formal syntax

text-emphasis-position = 
[ over | under ] &&
[ right | left ]?


Preferring ruby over emphasis marks

Some editors prefer to hide emphasis marks when they conflict with ruby. In HTML, this can be done with the following style rule:

ruby {
  text-emphasis: none;

Preferring emphasis marks over ruby

Some other editors prefer to hide ruby when they conflict with emphasis marks. In HTML, this can be done with the following pattern:

em {
  text-emphasis: dot; /* Set text-emphasis for <em> elements */

em rt {
  display: none; /* Hide ruby inside <em> elements */


Browser compatibility

Desktop Mobile
Chrome Edge Firefox Internet Explorer Opera Safari WebView Android Chrome Android Firefox for Android Opera Android Safari on IOS Samsung Internet
text-emphasis-position 9925 9979 46 No 15 77 4.4 9925 46 14 77 18.01.5
left_and_right 62 79 46 No 49 8 62 62 46 46 8 8.0

See also

© 2005–2023 MDN contributors.
Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License v2.5 or later.