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transform-style

The transform-style CSS property sets whether children of an element are positioned in the 3D space or are flattened in the plane of the element.

If flattened, the element's children will not exist on their own in the 3D-space.

As this property is not inherited, it must be set for all non-leaf descendants of the element.

Syntax

/* Keyword values */
transform-style: flat;
transform-style: preserve-3d;

/* Global values */
transform-style: inherit;
transform-style: initial;
transform-style: unset;

Values

flat
Indicates that the children of the element are lying in the plane of the element itself.
preserve-3d
Indicates that the children of the element should be positioned in the 3D-space.

Formal definition

Initial value flat
Applies to transformable elements
Inherited no
Computed value as specified
Animation type discrete
Creates stacking context yes

Formal syntax

flat | preserve-3d

Examples

Transform style demonstration

In this example we have a 3D cube created using transforms. The parent container of the cube faces has transform-style: preserve-3d set on it by default, so it is transformed in the 3D space and you can see it as intended.

We also provide a checkbox allowing you to toggle between this, and transform-style: flat. In this alternative state, the cube faces are all flattened onto the plane of their parent, and you might not be able to see them at all, depending on the browser you are using.

HTML

<section id="example-element">
  <div class="face front">1</div>
  <div class="face back">2</div>
  <div class="face right">3</div>
  <div class="face left">4</div>
  <div class="face top">5</div>
  <div class="face bottom">6</div>
</section>

<div class="checkbox">
  <label for="preserve"><code>preserve-3d</code></label>
  <input type="checkbox" id="preserve" checked>
</div>

CSS

#example-element {
  margin: 50px;
  width: 100px;
  height: 100px;
  transform-style: preserve-3d;
  transform: rotate3d(1, 1, 1, 30deg);
}

.face {
  display: flex;
  align-items: center;
  justify-content: center;
  width: 100%;
  height: 100%;
  position: absolute;
  backface-visibility: inherit;
  font-size: 60px;
  color: #fff;
}

.front {
    background: rgba(90,90,90,.7);
    transform: translateZ(50px);
}

.back {
    background: rgba(0,210,0,.7);
    transform: rotateY(180deg) translateZ(50px);
}

.right {
  background: rgba(210,0,0,.7);
  transform: rotateY(90deg) translateZ(50px);
}

.left {
  background: rgba(0,0,210,.7);
  transform: rotateY(-90deg) translateZ(50px);
}

.top {
  background: rgba(210,210,0,.7);
  transform: rotateX(90deg) translateZ(50px);
}

.bottom {
  background: rgba(210,0,210,.7);
  transform: rotateX(-90deg) translateZ(50px);
}

JavaScript

const cube = document.getElementById('example-element');
const checkbox = document.getElementById('preserve');

checkbox.addEventListener('change', () => {
  if(checkbox.checked) {
    cube.style.transformStyle = 'preserve-3d';
  } else {
    cube.style.transformStyle = 'flat';
  }
})

Result

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
CSS Transforms Level 2
The definition of 'transform-style' in that specification.
Editor's Draft Initial definition.

Browser compatibilityUpdate compatibility data on GitHub

Desktop
Chrome Edge Firefox Internet Explorer Opera Safari
transform-style 36
36
12
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
12
12
12
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
16
16
10
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -moz-
49
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
44
Prefixed Disabled
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Disabled From version 44: this feature is behind the layout.css.prefixes.webkit preference (needs to be set to true). To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.
No 23
23
15
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
9
9
4
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Mobile
Android webview Chrome for Android Firefox for Android Opera for Android Safari on iOS Samsung Internet
transform-style 37
37
3
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
36
36
18
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
16
16
10
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -moz-
49
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
44
Prefixed Disabled
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Disabled From version 44: this feature is behind the layout.css.prefixes.webkit preference (needs to be set to true). To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.
24
24
14
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
9
9
2
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
3.0
3.0
1.0
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-

See also

© 2005–2020 Mozilla and individual contributors.
Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License v2.5 or later.
https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/CSS/transform-style