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transform

The transform CSS property lets you rotate, scale, skew, or translate an element. It modifies the coordinate space of the CSS visual formatting model.

If the property has a value different than none, a stacking context will be created. In that case, the element will act as a containing block for any position: fixed; or position: absolute; elements that it contains.

Only transformable elements can be transformed. That is, all elements whose layout is governed by the CSS box model except for: non-replaced inline boxes, table-column boxes, and table-column-group boxes.

Syntax

/* Keyword values */
transform: none;

/* Function values */
transform: matrix(1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0);
transform: matrix3d(1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1);
transform: perspective(17px);
transform: rotate(0.5turn);
transform: rotate3d(1, 2.0, 3.0, 10deg);
transform: rotateX(10deg);
transform: rotateY(10deg);
transform: rotateZ(10deg);
transform: translate(12px, 50%);
transform: translate3d(12px, 50%, 3em);
transform: translateX(2em);
transform: translateY(3in);
transform: translateZ(2px);
transform: scale(2, 0.5);
transform: scale3d(2.5, 1.2, 0.3);
transform: scaleX(2);
transform: scaleY(0.5);
transform: scaleZ(0.3);
transform: skew(30deg, 20deg);
transform: skewX(30deg);
transform: skewY(1.07rad);

/* Multiple function values */
transform: translateX(10px) rotate(10deg) translateY(5px);
transform: perspective(500px) translate(10px, 0, 20px) rotateY(3deg);

/* Global values */
transform: inherit;
transform: initial;
transform: unset;

The transform property may be specified as either the keyword value none or as one or more <transform-function> values.

If perspective() is one of multiple function values, it must be listed first.

Values

<transform-function>
One or more of the CSS transform functions to be applied. The transform functions are multiplied in order from left to right, meaning that composite transforms are effectively applied in order from right to left.
none
Specifies that no transform should be applied.

Accessibility concerns

Scaling/zooming animations are problematic for accessibility, as they are a common trigger for certain types of migraine. If you need to include such animations on your website, you should provide a control to allow users to turn off animations, preferrably site-wide.

Also, consider making use of the prefers-reduced-motion media feature — use it to write a media query that will turn off animations if the user has reduced animation specified in their system preferences.

Find out more:

Formal definition

Initial value none
Applies to transformable elements
Inherited no
Percentages refer to the size of bounding box
Computed value as specified, but with relative lengths converted into absolute lengths
Animation type a transform
Creates stacking context yes

Formal syntax

none | <transform-list>

where
<transform-list> = <transform-function>+

where
<transform-function> = <matrix()> | <translate()> | <translateX()> | <translateY()> | <scale()> | <scaleX()> | <scaleY()> | <rotate()> | <skew()> | <skewX()> | <skewY()> | <matrix3d()> | <translate3d()> | <translateZ()> | <scale3d()> | <scaleZ()> | <rotate3d()> | <rotateX()> | <rotateY()> | <rotateZ()> | <perspective()>

where
<matrix()> = matrix( <number>#{6} )
<translate()> = translate( <length-percentage> , <length-percentage>? )
<translateX()> = translateX( <length-percentage> )
<translateY()> = translateY( <length-percentage> )
<scale()> = scale( <number> , <number>? )
<scaleX()> = scaleX( <number> )
<scaleY()> = scaleY( <number> )
<rotate()> = rotate( [ <angle> | <zero> ] )
<skew()> = skew( [ <angle> | <zero> ] , [ <angle> | <zero> ]? )
<skewX()> = skewX( [ <angle> | <zero> ] )
<skewY()> = skewY( [ <angle> | <zero> ] )
<matrix3d()> = matrix3d( <number>#{16} )
<translate3d()> = translate3d( <length-percentage> , <length-percentage> , <length> )
<translateZ()> = translateZ( <length> )
<scale3d()> = scale3d( <number> , <number> , <number> )
<scaleZ()> = scaleZ( <number> )
<rotate3d()> = rotate3d( <number> , <number> , <number> , [ <angle> | <zero> ] )
<rotateX()> = rotateX( [ <angle> | <zero> ] )
<rotateY()> = rotateY( [ <angle> | <zero> ] )
<rotateZ()> = rotateZ( [ <angle> | <zero> ] )
<perspective()> = perspective( <length> )

where
<length-percentage> = <length> | <percentage>

Examples

Translating and rotating an element

HTML

<div>Transformed element</div>

CSS

div {
  border: solid red;
  transform: translate(30px, 20px) rotate(20deg);
  width: 140px;
  height: 60px;
}

Result

More examples

Please see Using CSS transforms and <transform-function> for more examples.

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
CSS Transforms Level 2
The definition of 'transform' in that specification.
Editor's Draft Adds 3D transform functions.
CSS Transforms Level 1
The definition of 'transform' in that specification.
Working Draft Initial definition.

Browser compatibilityUpdate compatibility data on GitHub

Desktop
Chrome Edge Firefox Internet Explorer Opera Safari
transform 36
36
1
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
12
12
12
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
16
16
49
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
44
Prefixed Disabled
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Disabled From version 44: this feature is behind the layout.css.prefixes.webkit preference (needs to be set to true). To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.
10
10
Internet Explorer does not support the global values initial and unset.
11
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
9
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -ms-
Internet Explorer 5.5 or later supports a proprietary Matrix Filter which can be used to achieve a similar effect.
23
23
15
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
12.1 — 15
10.5 — 15
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -o-
9
9
3.1
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
3D support 12 12 16 10
10
Internet Explorer 9.0 or earlier has no support for 3D transforms. Mixing 3D and 2D transform functions, such as -ms-transform:rotate(10deg) translateZ(0);, will prevent the entire property from being applied.
15 4
Mobile
Android webview Chrome for Android Firefox for Android Opera for Android Safari on iOS Samsung Internet
transform 37
37
2
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Android 2.3 has a bug where input forms will "jump" when typing, if any container element has a -webkit-transform.
36
36
18
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
16
16
49
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
44
Prefixed Disabled
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
Disabled From version 44: this feature is behind the layout.css.prefixes.webkit preference (needs to be set to true). To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.
24
24
14
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
12.1 — 14
11 — 14
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -o-
9
9
3.2
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
3.0
3.0
1.0
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
3D support 3
Prefixed
3
Prefixed
Prefixed Implemented with the vendor prefix: -webkit-
18 16 14 3.2 1.0

See also

© 2005–2020 Mozilla and individual contributors.
Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License v2.5 or later.
https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/CSS/transform