The rotate CSS property allows you to specify rotation transforms individually and independently of the transform property. This maps better to typical user interface usage, and saves having to remember the exact order of transform functions to specify in the transform property.

Try it


/* Keyword values */
rotate: none;

/* Angle value */
rotate: 90deg;
rotate: 0.25turn;
rotate: 1.57rad;

/* x, y, or z axis name plus angle */
rotate: x 90deg;
rotate: y 0.25turn;
rotate: z 1.57rad;

/* Vector plus angle value */
rotate: 1 1 1 90deg;

/* Global values */
rotate: inherit;
rotate: initial;
rotate: revert;
rotate: revert-layer;
rotate: unset;


angle value

An <angle> specifying the angle to rotate the affected element through, around the Z axis. Equivalent to a rotate() (2D rotation) function.

x, y, or z axis name plus angle value

The name of the axis you want to rotate the affected element around ("x", "y", or "z"), plus an <angle> specifying the angle to rotate the element through. Equivalent to a rotateX()/rotateY()/rotateZ() (3D rotation) function.

vector plus angle value

Three <number>s representing an origin-centered vector that defines a line around which you want to rotate the element, plus an <angle> specifying the angle to rotate the element through. Equivalent to a rotate3d() (3D rotation) function.


Specifies that no rotation should be applied.

Formal definition

Initial value none
Applies to transformable elements
Inherited no
Computed value as specified
Animation type a transform
Creates stacking context yes

Formal syntax

rotate = 
none |
<angle> |
[ x | y | z | <number>{3} ] && <angle>


Rotating an element on hover

The following example shows how to use the rotate property to rotate an element along various axes on hover. The first box rotates 90 degrees on the Z axis hover, the second rotates 180 degrees on the Y axis on hover, and the third rotates 360 degrees on hover around a vector defined by coordinates.


<div class="box" id="box1">rotate Z</div>
<div class="box" id="box2">rotate Y</div>
<div class="box" id="box3">vector & angle</div>


.box {
  display: inline-block;
  margin: 1em;
  min-width: 6.5em;
  line-height: 6.5em;
  text-align: center;
  transition: 1s ease-in-out;
  border: 0.25em dotted;

#box1:hover {
  rotate: 90deg;

#box2:hover {
  rotate: y 180deg;

#box3:hover {
  rotate: 1 2 1 360deg;



Browser compatibility

Desktop Mobile
Chrome Edge Firefox Internet Explorer Opera Safari WebView Android Chrome Android Firefox for Android Opera Android Safari on IOS Samsung Internet
rotate 104 104 72 No 90 14.1 104 104 79 71 14.5 20.0
x_y_z_angle 104 104 72 No 90 preview 104 104 79 71 No 20.0

See also

Note: skew is not an independent transform value

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