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rotate

The rotate CSS property allows you to specify rotation transforms individually and independently of the transform property. This maps better to typical user interface usage, and saves having to remember the exact order of transform functions to specify in the transform property.

Syntax

/* Keyword values */
rotate: none;

/* Angle value */
rotate: 90deg;
rotate: 0.25turn;
rotate: 1.57rad;

/* x, y, or z axis name plus angle */
rotate: x 90deg;
rotate: y 0.25turn;
rotate: z 1.57rad;

/* Vector plus angle value */
rotate: 1 1 1 90deg;

Values

angle value
An <angle> specifying the angle to rotate the affected element through, around the Z axis. Equivalent to a rotate() (2D rotation) function.
x, y, or z axis name plus angle value
The name of the axis you want to rotate the affected element around ("x", "y", or "z"), plus an <angle> specifying the angle to rotate the element through. Equivalent to a rotateX()/rotateY()/rotateZ() (3D rotation) function.
vector plus angle value
Three <number>s representing an origin-centered vector that defines a line around which you want to rotate the element, plus an <angle> specifying the angle to rotate the element through. Equivalent to a rotate3d() (3D rotation) function.
none
Specifies that no rotation should be applied.

Formal definition

Initial value none
Applies to transformable elements
Inherited no
Computed value as specified
Animation type a transform
Creates stacking context yes

Formal syntax

none | <angle> | [ x | y | z | <number>{3} ] && <angle>

Examples

Rotate an element on hover

HTML

<div>
  <p class="rotate">Rotation</p>
</div>

CSS

.rotate {
  transition: rotate 1s;
}

div:hover .rotate {
  rotate: 1 -0.5 1 180deg;
}

Result

Specifications

Specification Status Comment
CSS Transforms Level 2
The definition of 'individual transforms' in that specification.
Editor's Draft Initial definition.

Browser compatibilityUpdate compatibility data on GitHub

Desktop
Chrome Edge Firefox Internet Explorer Opera Safari
rotate No No 72
72
60 — 72
Disabled
Disabled From version 60 until version 72 (exclusive): this feature is behind the layout.css.individual-transform.enabled preference (needs to be set to true). To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.
No No No
x, y, or z axis name plus angle value No No 72
72
65 — 72
Disabled
Disabled From version 65 until version 72 (exclusive): this feature is behind the layout.css.individual-transform.enabled preference (needs to be set to true). To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.
No No No
Mobile
Android webview Chrome for Android Firefox for Android Opera for Android Safari on iOS Samsung Internet
rotate No No 60
Disabled
60
Disabled
Disabled From version 60: this feature is behind the layout.css.individual-transform.enabled preference (needs to be set to true). To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.
No No No
x, y, or z axis name plus angle value No No 65
Disabled
65
Disabled
Disabled From version 65: this feature is behind the layout.css.individual-transform.enabled preference (needs to be set to true). To change preferences in Firefox, visit about:config.
No No No

See also

Note: skew is not an independent transform value

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Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License v2.5 or later.
https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/CSS/rotate